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Table 4 Association between the % of ultra-processed in each food group and incident depressive symptoms, NutriNet-Santé study, N = 26,730

From: Prospective association between ultra-processed food consumption and incident depressive symptoms in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort

  Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4 P trenda
Starchy foods 1 (ref) 0.97 (0.86; 1.10) 0.97 (0.86; 1.10) 1.01 (0.89; 1.14) 0.98
Fruit and vegetables 1 (ref) 0.92 (0.81; 1.03) 0.97 (0.86; 1.10) 1.08 (0.95; 1.22) 0.57
Meat, fish, eggs 1 (ref) 1.08 (0.96; 1.22) 0.97 (0.86; 1.10) 1.04 (0.92; 1.17) 0.98
Beverages 1 (ref) 1.19 (0.91; 1.54) 1.00 (0.89; 1.12) 1.25 (1.13; 1.38) 0.002
Dairy products 1 (ref) 1.03 (0.91; 1.16) 1.06 (0.94; 1.20) 1.13 (1.00; 1.27) 0.20
Fatty/sweet products 1 (ref) 1.02 (0.90; 1.16) 1.05 (0.93; 1.18) 1.08 (0.96; 1.22) 0.57
Snacks 1 (ref) 0.97 (0.85; 1.10) 1.10 (0.98; 1.25) 1.10 (0.98; 1.24) 0.18
Sauces/added fats 1 (ref) 1.05 (0.93; 1.19) 0.96 (0.85; 1.09) 1.23 (1.10; 1.39) 0.02
  1. Values are hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) and linear trend tests across the quartiles were assessed by modeling the quartiles of %UPF as ordinal variables. UPF Proportion of ultra-processed food intake
  2. Models are adjusted for age, sex, marital status, educational level, occupational categories, household income per consumption unit, residential area, energy intake without alcohol, number of 24-h dietary records, inclusion month, smoking status, physical activity, body mass index, health events during follow-up (cancer, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular events) and quantity of the equivalent food group
  3. aCorrected using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure