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Table 2 BP values and anti-hypertensive treatment in the RIACE participants with valid information on vital status, stratified by BP status according to the 130/80 mmHg BP targets

From: Is resistant hypertension an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes? A prospective cohort study

Variable NT UTHT CHT UCHT RHT P
n, (%) 2206 (14.09) 2378 (15.19) 3707 (23.68) 5014 (32.03) 2351 (15.02)  
Systolic BP, mmHg 121.2 ± 8.4 145.6 ± 12.7 122.1 ± 8.4 149.4 ± 14.2 147.2 ± 17.5 < 0.0001
Diastolic BP, mmHg 73.7 ± 6.7 82.4 ± 8.4 73.1 ± 7.3 82.6 ± 9.2 80.5 ± 9.7 < 0.0001
Pulse pressure, mmHg 47.5 ± 8.5 63.2 ± 14.4 49.0 ± 8.8 66.8 ± 14.9 66.7 ± 16.7 < 0.0001
Number of anti-hypertensive agents 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 1.80 ± 0.77 1.48 ± 0.50 3.47 ± 0.65 < 0.0001
RAS blockers, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3064 (82.65) 3989 (79.56) 2287 (97.28) < 0.0001
 ACE-inhibitors, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2000 (53.95) 2651 (52.87) 1429 (60.78) < 0.0001
 ARBs, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1085 (29.27) 1346 (26.84) 1144 (48.66) < 0.0001
Alpha-blockers, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 200 (5.40) 240 (4.79) 507 (21.57) < 0.0001
Beta-blockers, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 871 (23.50) 749 (14.94) 1099 (46.75) < 0.0001
Non-DHP CCBs, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 247 (6.66) 285 (5.68) 257 (10.93) < 0.0001
DHP CCBs, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 707 (19.07) 870 (17.35) 1243 (52.87) < 0.0001
Diuretics, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1410 (38.04) 1239 (23.71) 2013 (85.62) < 0.0001
 Thiazides, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 826 (22.28) 795 (15.86) 1387 (59.00) < 0.0001
 Henle’s loop, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 552 (14.89) 379 (7.56) 800 (34.03) < 0.0001
 Anti-aldosterone, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 172 (4.64) 100 (1.99) 301 (12.8) < 0.0001
  1. Values are mean ± SD for continuous variables, unless otherwise specified. RIACE Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events, BP blood pressure, NT normotension, UTHT untreated hypertension, CHT controlled hypertension (on-target with 1, 2, or 3 drugs), UCHT uncontrolled hypertension (not on-target with 1 or 2 drugs), RHT resistant hypertension (on-target with > 4 drugs or not on-target with > 3 drugs), RAS renin-angiotensin system, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, DHP dihydropyridine, CCBs calcium channel blockers