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Table 3 Baseline clinical features in the RIACE participants with valid information on vital status and resistant hypertension on-target with > 4 drugs or not on-target with > 3 drugs according to the 130/80 mmHg BP targets

From: Is resistant hypertension an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes? A prospective cohort study

Variables CRHT UCRHT P
n (%) 305 (12.97) 2046 (87.03)  
Age, years 68.0 ± 8.8 69.8 ± 8.6 0.001
Gender, n (%)    0.136
 Females 132 (43.28) 979 (47.85)  
 Males 173 (56.72) 1067 (52.15)  
Smoking status, n (%)    0.226
 Never 159 (52.13) 1169 (57.14)  
 Former 104 (34.10) 642 (31.38)  
 Current 42 (13.77) 235 (11.49)  
Diabetes duration, years 13.7 ± 9.8 14.5 ± 10.3 0.203
HbA1c, mmol/mol 60.7 ± 17.4 59.3 ± 16.1 0.208
Anti-hyperglycemic treatment, n (%)    0.008
 Lifestyle 34 (11.15) 194 (9.48)  
 Non-insulin 153 (50.16) 1217 (59.48)  
 Insulin 118 (38.69) 635 (31.04)  
BMI, kg/m2 30.5 ± 5.6 30.6 ± 5.4 0.702
Waist circumference, cm 105.6 ± 11.1 105.8 ± 10.9 0.804
Triglycerides, mmol/l 1.54 (1.08, 2.17) 1.44 (1.07, 1.97) 0.041
Total cholesterol, mmol/l 4.50 ± 0.94 4.71 ± 0.97 < 0.0001
HDL cholesterol, mmol/l 1.15 ± 0.30 1.28 ± 0.35 < 0.0001
LDL cholesterol, mmol/l 2.54 ± 0.77 2.69 ± 0.83 0.003
Lipid-lowering therapy, n (%) 188 (61.64) 1187 (58.02) 0.231
Statins, n (%) 175 (57.38) 1096 (53.57) 0.213
Anti-platelet therapy, n (%) 189 (61.97) 1160 (56.70) 0.082
Anti-coagulant therapy, n (%) 47 (15.41) 160 (7.82) < 0.0001
Albuminuria, mg/24 h 18.7 (9.2, 74.3) 20.0 (9.1, 72.9) 0.627
eGFR, ml·min−1·1.73 m−2 68.5 ± 24.1 71.5 ± 22.3 0.032
DKD phenotypes, n (%)    0.056
 Alb/eGFR 127 (41.64) 939 (45.89)  
 Alb+/eGFR 63 (20.66) 493 (24.10)  
 Alb/eGFR+ 57 (18.69) 295 (14.42)  
 Alb+/eGFR+ 58 (19.02) 319 (15.59)  
DR, n (%)    0.935
 No 219 (71.80) 1469 (71.80)  
 Non-advanced 44 (14.43) 283 (13.83)  
 Advanced 42 (13.77) 294 (14.37)  
CVD, n (%)    
 Any 136 (44.59) 694 (33.92) < 0.0001
 Acute myocardial infarction 90 (29.51) 365 (17.84) < 0.0001
 Coronary revascularization 78 (25.57) 313 (15.30) < 0.0001
 Any coronary event 115 (37.70) 475 (23.22) < 0.0001
 Stroke 10 (3.28) 117 (5.72) 0.079
 Carotid revascularization 26 (8.52) 164 (8.02) 0.761
 Any cerebrovascular event 35 (11.48) 265 (12.95) 0.471
 Ulcer/gangrene/amputation 18 (5.90) 105 (5.13) 0.573
 Lower limb revascularization 20 (6.56) 81 (3.96) 0.037
 Any peripheral event 30 (9.84) 165 (8.06) 0.295
 Aortic aneurysm 3 (0.98) 13 (0.64) 0.490
Cancer, n (%) 30 (9.84) 153 (7.48) 0.152
Systolic BP, mmHg 121.3 ± 8.8 151.0 ± 15.0 < 0.0001
Diastolic BP, mmHg 72.4 ± 7.1 81.7 ± 9.5 < 0.0001
Pulse pressure, mmHg 48.8 ± 9.0 69.3 ± 16.0 < 0.0001
Number of anti-hypertensive agents 4.21 ± 0.45 3.36 ± 0.60 < 0.0001
RAS blockers, n (%) 304 (99.67) 1983 (96.92) 0.006
 ACE-inhibitors, n (%) 195 (63.93) 1234 (60.31) 0.227
 ARBs, n (%) 151 (49.51) 993 (48.53) 0.751
Alpha-blockers, n (%) 91 (29.84) 416 (20.33) < 0.0001
Beta-blockers, n (%) 223 (73.11) 876 (42.82) < 0.0001
Non-DHP CCBs, n (%) 31 (10.16) 226 (11.05) 0.645
DHP CCBs, n (%) 169 (55.41) 1074 (52.49) 0.341
Diuretics, n (%) 287 (94.10) 1726 (84.36) < 0.0001
 Thiazides, n (%) 179 (58.69) 1208 (59.04) 0.907
 Henle’s loop, n (%) 158 (51.80) 642 (31.38) < 0.0001
 Anti-aldosterone, n (%) 87 (28.52) 2046 (10.46) < 0.0001
  1. Values are mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) for continuous variables, and number of cases (percentage) for categorical variables. RIACE Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events, CRHT controlled resistant hypertension (on-target with > 4 drugs), UCRHT uncontrolled resistant hypertension (not on-target with > 3 drugs), HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, DKD diabetic kidney disease, Alb/eGFR no DKD, Alb+/eGFR albuminuric DKD with preserved eGFR, Alb/eGFR+ nonalbuminuric DKD, Alb+/eGFR+ albuminuric DKD with reduced eGFR, DR diabetic retinopathy, CVD cardiovascular disease, BP blood pressure, RAS renin-angiotensin system, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, DHP dihydropyridine, CCBs calcium channel blockers