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Table 1 Distribution of selected studies according to study characteristics.

From: Population-level mathematical modeling of antimicrobial resistance: a systematic review

  TOTAL MRSA TB HIV Influenza Malaria
Host type (n = 273) (n = 65) (n = 43) (n = 34) (n = 30) (n = 22)
 Human 233 (89%) 62 (95%) 43 (100%) 34 (100%) 28 (93%) 21 (95%)
 Animal 18 (7%) 2 (3%) 2 (7%) 1 (5%)
 Human-animal 7 (2%) 1 (2%)
 Plant 5 (2%)
Population type
 Community (endemic) 154 (58%) 7 (11%) 40 (93%) 34 (100%) 25 (83%) 21 (95%)
 Healthcare facility 71 (27%) 49 (75%) 1 (2%)
 Community-healthcare facility 11 (4%) 5 (8%) 2 (5%) 1 (3.5%)
 Agricultural-farming 20 (8%) 1 (1.5%) 1 (3.5%)
 Other 8 (3%) 3 (4.5%) 3(10%) 1 (5%)
Model parameters
 Referenced data 191 (72%) 34 (52%) 38 (88%) 32 (94%) 29 (97%) 17 (77%)
 Primary data 73 (28%) 31 (48%) 5 (12%) 2 (6%) 1 (3%) 5 (23%)
Model type
 Deterministic 175 (66%) 30 (46%) 36 (84%) 23 (70%) 18 (60%) 18 (82%)
 Stochastic 57 (22%) 30 (46%) 6 (14%) 5 (12%) 3 (10%) 2 (9%)
 Both (D and S) 25 (9%) 5 (8%) 1 (2%) 4 (12%) 8 (27%) 1 (5%)
 Hybrid 7 (3%) 2 (6%) 1 (3%) 1 (5%)
Model class
 Compartmental 201 (76%) 34 (52%) 37 (86%) 27 (79%) 26 (87%) 19 (86%)
 Individual-based 33 (12%) 19 (29%) 3 (7%) 4 (12%) 1 (3%) 1 (5%)
 Both 7 (3%) 1 (2%) 2 (6%) 1 (3%) 1 (5%)
 Other 23 (9%) 11 (17%) 3 (7%) 1 (3%) 2 (7%) 1 (5%)
Model features
 Multi-strain model 190 (72%) 23 (35%) 42 (98%) 32 (94%) 29 (97%) 17 (77%)
 Co-infection of hosts 22 (8%) 5 (8%) 9 (21%) 5 (15%) 3 (10%) 3 (14%)
 Fitness cost modeled 132 (50%) 15 (23%) 32 (74%) 20 (59%) 25 (83%) 13 (59%)
 Acquired and transmitted resistance 89 (34%) 1 (2%) 26 (60%) 28 (82%) 20 (67%) 5 (23%)
 Within-host model 17 (6%) 1 (2%) 3 (7%) 2 (6%) 1 (3%) 4 (18%)
 Population stratification 48 (18%) 4 (6%) 11 (26) 18 (53%) 3 (10%) 4 (18%)
Model rigor
 Calibration 115 (43%) 33 (51%) 26 (60%) 16 (47%) 4 (13%) 3 (14%)
 Validation 36 (14%) 10 (15%) 11 (26%) 5 (15%) 0 (0%) 1 (5%)
 Sensitivity analyses 159 (60%) 36 (55%) 32 (74%) 25 (74%) 16 (53%) 14 (64%)
Economics
 Cost/benefit analysis 23 (9%) 8 (12%) 6 (14%) 6 (18%) 1 (3%) 3 (14%)