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Table 2 Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions of diabetes care cascade indicators on socio-demographic characteristics

From: Variation in health system performance for managing diabetes among states in India: a cross-sectional study of individuals aged 15 to 49 years

  Aware Treated Controlled
Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban
OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Education   Trend < 0.001   Trend < 0.001   Trend < 0.001   Trend < 0.001   Trend = 0.359   Trend < 0.001
 Primary school or less 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Secondary school unfinished 1.18 (1.09–1.28) < 0.001 1.13 (1.03–1.24) 0.007 1.35 (1.24–1.46) < 0.001 1.35 (1.23–1.48) < 0.001 1.01 (0.92–1.11) 0.785 0.95 (0.86–1.06) 0.355
 Secondary school or above 1.23 (1.11–1.37) < 0.001 1.59 (1.43–1.77) < 0.001 1.26 (1.13–1.41) < 0.001 1.63 (1.46–1.81) < 0.001 1.06 (0.94–1.20) 0.359 1.59 (1.41–1.79) < 0.001
Household wealth quintile   Trend = 0.001   Trend < 0.001   Trend < 0.001   Trend < 0.001   Trend < 0.001   Trend < 0.001
 Q1 (poorest) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Q2 0.80 (0.71–0.92) 0.001 1.17 (1.03–1.32) 0.015 0.87 (0.76–1.00) 0.050 1.27 (1.11–1.46) < 0.001 1.00 (0.86–1.16) 0.998 0.92 (0.78–1.08) 0.287
 Q3 0.89 (0.79–1.02) 0.093 1.24 (1.09–1.41) 0.001 1.06 (0.92–1.21) 0.431 1.85 (1.62–2.11) < 0.001 1.09 (0.94–1.27) 0.242 1.43 (1.22–1.66) < 0.001
 Q4 1.02 (0.90–1.16) 0.741 1.01 (0.89–1.15) 0.870 1.40 (1.22–1.60) < 0.001 1.50 (1.31–1.72) < 0.001 1.14 (0.98–1.32) 0.093 1.16 (0.99–1.36) 0.062
 Q5 (richest) 1.15 (1.00–1.32) 0.044 1.68 (1.45–1.93) < 0.001 1.71 (1.48–1.98) < 0.001 2.45 (2.12–2.84) < 0.001 1.32 (1.13–1.54) 0.001 1.59 (1.35–1.88) < 0.001
Currently married 0.82 (0.74–0.92) < 0.001 1.13 (1.01–1.27) 0.027 0.86 (0.77–0.96) 0.008 1.45 (1.29–1.62) < 0.001 0.98 (0.87–1.11) 0.730 1.62 (1.41–1.86) < 0.001
Female 1.40 (1.31–1.50) < 0.001 1.85 (1.72–1.99) < 0.001 1.60 (1.49–1.72) < 0.001 1.94 (1.80–2.09) < 0.001 1.55 (1.44–1.68) < 0.001 1.79 (1.65–1.94) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, Q quintile
  2. These regressions contained all socio-demographic variables listed in the table (wealth quintile, education, marital status, and sex), age as a continuous variable with restricted cubic splines with five knots (the knots were placed at the 5th, 27.5th, 50th, 72.5th, and 95th percentiles), and a binary indicator for each district (district-level fixed effects) as explanatory variables. The regressions were weighted using sampling weights. Results for regressions run without sampling weights, not stratified by rural versus urban areas (but including rural/urban as a socio-demographic variable and interaction terms for education-rural/urban location and household wealth quintile-rural/urban location) and separately for women and men can be found in Additional file 1: Table S14-S18. Nineteen thousand four hundred fifty-three individuals with diabetes were included in the regressions for this table; 10,504 were “aware”, 8269 “treated”, and 5329 “controlled”. The P value for trend is for a linear trend