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Table 2 Prevalence of comorbid internalizing disorders, as a function of the number of specific phobia subtypes

From: Childhood generalized specific phobia as an early marker of internalizing psychopathology across the lifespan: results from the World Mental Health Surveys

Comorbid disorder Number of subtypes Test of linear effect (total sample) Test of linear effect (SP cases only)
0 1 2 3 4+
% (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE) OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Agoraphobia 0.8 (0.0) 5.1 (0.4) 9.5 (0.8) 17.4 (2.0) 21.2 (2.3) 2.6* (2.4–2.7) < 0.001 1.7* (1.5–1.9) < 0.001
Generalized anxiety disorder 3.5 (0.1) 9.7 (0.6) 14.2 (1.1) 21.0 (1.8) 21.3 (2.6) 1.8* (1.7–1.9) < 0.001 1.4* (1.3–1.5) < 0.001
Panic disorder 1.4 (0.0) 5.5 (0.5) 8.8 (0.7) 12.6 (1.5) 15.8 (1.8) 2.0* (1.9–2.1) < 0.001 1.5* (1.3–1.6) < 0.001
Post-traumatic stress disorder 2.9 (0.1) 9.0 (0.6) 15.3 (1.2) 18.5 (1.8) 22.2 (2.3) 1.9* (1.8–2.0) < 0.001 1.4* (1.3–1.6) < 0.001
Separation anxiety disorder 3.9 (0.1) 12.7 (0.9) 19.7 (1.7) 27.2 (2.5) 27.4 (2.7) 1.9* (1.8–2.0) < 0.001 1.4* (1.2–1.5) < 0.001
Social anxiety disorder 3.3 (0.1) 14.9 (0.8) 23.2 (1.3) 31.3 (2.3) 38.2 (2.8) 2.3* (2.2–2.4) < 0.001 1.5* (1.4–1.6) < 0.001
Any anxiety disorder 10.5 (0.2) 33.6 (1.1) 47.0 (1.7) 62.4 (2.3) 66.1 (2.8) 2.4* (2.3–2.5) < 0.001 1.6* (1.5–1.7) < 0.001
Major depression/dysthymia 10.5 (0.2) 24.1 (0.9) 30.1 (1.4) 36.2 (2.5) 34.1 (2.7) 1.6* (1.6–1.7) < 0.001 1.2* (1.2–1.3) < 0.001
Bipolar disorder 1.8 (0.1) 5.7 (0.5) 10.0 (0.9) 12.7 (1.5) 17.3 (1.9) 1.9* (1.8–2.0) < 0.001 1.5* (1.3–1.6) < 0.001
Any mood disorder 12.0 (0.2) 28.8 (1.0) 39.3 (1.5) 47.8 (2.5) 50.9 (3.0) 1.9* (1.8–1.9) < 0.001 1.4* (1.3–1.5) < 0.001
Bulimia nervosa 0.6 (0.0) 2.0 (0.3) 3.6 (0.7) 6.8 (1.6) 5.9 (1.6) 2.0* (1.8–2.2) < 0.001 1.7* (1.4–2.0) < 0.001
Binge eating disorder 1.4 (0.1) 5.7 (0.8) 5.3 (0.8) 6.6 (1.7) 6.3 (1.7) 1.7* (1.5–1.8) < 0.001 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.746
Any eating disorder 1.9 (0.1) 7.2 (0.9) 8.3 (1.0) 12.4 (2.0) 11.4 (2.2) 1.8* (1.7–1.9) < 0.001 1.3* (1.1–1.5) 0.003
Any internalizing disorder 18.2 (0.2) 46.3 (1.2) 61.1 (1.7) 75.6 (2.1) 75.6 (2.7) 2.4* (2.3–2.5) < 0.001 1.6* (1.5–1.8) < 0.001
Exactly 1 internalizing disorder 12.3 (0.2) 24.0 (1.0) 27.6 (1.5) 26.8 (2.2) 21.6 (2.4) 1.4* (1.3–1.4) < 0.001 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.677
Exactly 2 internalizing disorders 4.0 (0.1) 12.2 (0.7) 15.2 (1.2) 21.6 (2.0) 19.7 (2.2) 1.7* (1.6–1.8) < 0.001 1.2* (1.1–1.3) < 0.001
Exactly 3 internalizing disorders 1.4 (0.0) 5.9 (0.5) 9.2 (0.8) 12.8 (1.5) 14.9 (1.8) 2.0* (1.9–2.1) < 0.001 1.4* (1.2–1.5) < 0.001
4+ internalizing disorders 0.6 (0.0) 4.2 (0.4) 9.0 (0.8) 14.4 (1.7) 19.4 (2.6) 2.6* (2.4–2.8) < 0.001 1.7* (1.6–2.0) < 0.001
  1. Italics indicate the main groups of disorders. *p < 0.005