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Table 3 Persistence of comorbid internalizing disorders, as a function of the number of specific phobia subtypes

From: Childhood generalized specific phobia as an early marker of internalizing psychopathology across the lifespan: results from the World Mental Health Surveys

Comorbid disorder Number of subtypes Test of linear effect (total sample) Test of linear effect (SP cases only)
0 1 2 3 4+
% (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE) OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Agoraphobia 57.8 (2.6) 67.6 (3.9) 64.6 (5.1) 63.6 (6.6) 86.4 (3.2) 1.3* (1.1–1.4) < 0.001 1.3* (1.1–1.6) 0.002
Generalized anxiety disorder 46.2 (1.1) 52.3 (3.0) 56.3 (3.7) 51.0 (4.7) 68.7 (5.3) 1.2* (1.1–1.3) < 0.001 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.155
Panic disorder 56.1 (1.9) 59.3 (4.1) 65.7 (3.9) 63.6 (5.8) 80.7 (4.7) 1.2* (1.1–1.4) < 0.001 1.3* (1.1–1.6) 0.003
Post-traumatic stress disorder 46.0 (1.5) 53.4 (3.5) 56.0 (4.0) 59.6 (4.9) 50.9 (5.4) 1.2* (1.0–1.3) 0.003 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.821
Separation anxiety disorder 20.4 (1.3) 20.3 (3.1) 24.2 (3.1) 23.3 (4.2) 26.3 (4.3) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.109 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.345
Social anxiety disorder 56.2 (1.3) 65.3 (2.7) 73.9 (2.8) 73.4 (3.6) 80.2 (3.5) 1.3* (1.2–1.5) < 0.001 1.2 (1.0–1.3) 0.027
Any anxiety disorder 48.9 (0.8) 59.5 (1.8) 65.4 (2.1) 65.5 (2.9) 76.0 (2.9) 1.4* (1.3–1.4) < 0.001 1.2* (1.1–1.3) < 0.001
Major depression/dysthymia 39.7 (0.6) 48.8 (2.0) 51.5 (2.7) 56.3 (3.8) 63.3 (4.5) 1.3* (1.2–1.4) < 0.001 1.2 (1.0–1.3) 0.007
Bipolar disorder 56.7 (1.6) 57.4 (4.3) 67.9 (4.8) 70.2 (5.4) 77.5 (4.9) 1.2* (1.1–1.4) < 0.001 1.4* (1.2–1.8) 0.001
Any mood disorder 41.9 (0.5) 50.2 (1.8) 55.3 (2.4) 59.7 (3.1) 68.0 (3.3) 1.3* (1.2–1.4) < 0.001 1.2* (1.1–1.4) < 0.001
Any eating disorder 42.9 (2.3) 54.0 (5.7) 55.7 (5.7) 38.1 (8.8) 45.1 (8.9) 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.295 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 0.164
Any internalizing disorder 47.9 (0.5) 59.0 (1.5) 66.1 (2.0) 70.5 (2.5) 79.1 (2.5) 1.4* (1.4–1.5) < 0.001 1.3* (1.2–1.4) < 0.001
  1. Persistence is defined as the presence of a 12-month disorder among lifetime cases with that disorder. Because of low prevalence, persistence of individual eating disorders was not assessed
  2. Italics indicate the main groups of disorders. *p < 0.005