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Table 4 Age of onset of comorbid disorders, as a function of the number of specific phobia subtypes

From: Childhood generalized specific phobia as an early marker of internalizing psychopathology across the lifespan: results from the World Mental Health Surveys

Comorbid disorder Number of subtypes Test of linear effect (whole sample) Test of linear effect (SP cases only)
0 1 2 3 4+
Median (IQR) Median (IQR) Median (IQR) Median (IQR) Median (IQR) OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Agoraphobia 21 (13–35) 21 (13–39) 20 (13–40) 16 (8–31) 12 (8–17) 1.2* (1.1–1.2) < 0.001 1.3* (1.2–1.4) < 0.001
Generalized anxiety disorder 39 (26–54) 37 (24–52) 35 (21–52) 33 (20–44) 28 (18–46) 1.2* (1.1–1.2) < 0.001 1.2* (1.1–1.2) < 0.001
Panic disorder 33 (21–49) 29 (19–41) 35 (18–60) 24 (14–41) 18 (11–27) 1.2* (1.2–1.3) < 0.001 1.2* (1.1–1.3) < 0.001
Post-traumatic stress disorder 36 (21–54) 33 (20–49) 36 (19–53) 35 (19–75) 33 (19–64) 1.1* (1.0–1.1) 0.002 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.166
Separation anxiety disorder 19 (10–31) 19 (8–29) 18 (8–30) 14 (8–36) 17 (8–28) 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 0.074 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 0.235
Social anxiety disorder 14 (9–18) 13 (10–16) 13 (8–16) 13 (8–17) 12 (7–15) 1.2* (1.1–1.2) < 0.001 1.3* (1.3–1.4) < 0.001
Major depression/dysthymia 38 (25–53) 33 (22–48) 34 (21–51) 30 (18–50) 29 (15–46) 1.2* (1.1–1.2) < 0.001 1.1* (1.0–1.2) 0.001
Bipolar disorder 25 (18–38) 26 (18–44) 28 (19–45) 33 (20–45) 24 (18–32) 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 0.169 1.2* (1.1–1.3) 0.001
  1. Median age of onset was determined using the actuarial method. Differences in age of onset were tested with a discrete-time logistic regression, with the sample limited to participants who developed the comorbid disorder, and with number of early phobia subtypes time-varying until age 13
  2. *p < 0.005