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Table 1 Children’s sociodemographic characteristics at baseline and weight status of the US children at baseline and fifth wave of ECLS-K

From: Effects of school neighborhood food environments on childhood obesity at multiple scales: a longitudinal kindergarten cohort study in the USA

Variables Percent or mean ± SD p valuea
All (n = 7530) Boys (n = 3780) Girls (n = 3750)
Sociodemographic characteristics (1998)
 Age (years) 6.2 ± 0.4 6.3 ± 0.3 6.2 ± 0.3 0.012
 Race/ethnicity     0.153
  White 58.0 58.5 57.5  
  Black 17.5 18.0 17.0  
  Hispanic 18.2 18.4 18.1  
  Asian 2.9 2.1 3.7  
  Others 3.4 3.0 3.7  
 Parental education     0.227
  ≤ High school 33.8 35.5 32.1  
  Vocational/college 32.5 31.9 33.1  
  Bachelor 19.2 19.1 19.3  
  ≥ Graduate 14.5 13.5 15.5  
 Household annual income ($)     0.503
  ≤ 30,000 35.0 35.7 34.2  
  > 30,000 but ≤ 50,000 24.1 24.4 23.8  
  > 50,000 but ≤ 75,000 18.4 17.3 19.6  
  > 75,000 22.5 22.6 22.4  
 Urbanicity     0.797
  Urban 68.4 68.1 68.6  
  Non-urban 31.6 31.9 31.4  
Weight statusb (1998)
 BMI (kg/m2) 16.4 ± 2.2 16.4 ± 2.0 16.4 ± 2.3 0.684
 Overweight and obesity 26.6 25.9 27.3 0.435
 Obesity 11.3 11.6 10.9 0.590
Weight statusb (2007)
 BMI (kg/m2) 22.9 ± 5.7 22.6 ± 5.2 23.2 ± 5.8 0.013
 Overweight and obesity 35.5 35.6 35.4 0.903
 Obesity 19.5 21.0 18.0 0.062
  1. Sampling weights were used in the analyses
  2. ap values tested the differences in each variable between genders and were based on χ2 tests for categorical variables or t tests for continuous variables
  3. bChildren were classified as overweight and obesity if their sex-age-specific body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th and 95th percentiles of the 2000 CDC Growth Chart, respectively
  4. Italicized numbers indicate statistical significance p < 0.05
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