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Table 2 School neighborhood food environments surrounding US children at baseline and fifth wave of ECLS-K

From: Effects of school neighborhood food environments on childhood obesity at multiple scales: a longitudinal kindergarten cohort study in the USA

Food outlet type Percent or mean ± SD p valuea
All (n = 7530) Boys (n = 3780) Girls (n = 3750)
Supermarket
 1998 0.56 ± 2.02 0.51 ± 1.77 0.62 ± 2.13 0.263
 2007 0.83 ± 3.63 0.76 ± 3.39 0.91 ± 3.63 0.429
 1998–2007     0.206
  Decreased 16.1 15.3 17.0  
  Constant 13.3 12.3 14.2  
  Increased 70.6 72.4 68.8  
Convenience store
 1998 0.13 ± 0.25 0.13 ± 0.22 0.14 ± 0.26 0.460
 2007 0.19 ± 0.40 0.19 ± 0.35 0.20 ± 0.41 0.456
 1998–2007     0.937
  Decreased 16.7 16.5 17.0  
  Constant 19.4 19.6 19.2  
  Increased 63.9 63.9 63.8  
Full-service restaurant
 1998 1.38 ± 5.14 1.28 ± 4.57 1.48 ± 5.36 0.163
 2007 1.81 ± 6.93 1.72 ± 6.10 1.90 ± 7.27 0.371
 1998–2007     0.278
  Decreased 8.0 8.2 7.8  
  Constant 5.9 5.2 6.6  
  Increased 86.1 86.6 85.6  
Fast-food restaurant
 1998 0.25 ± 0.48 0.24 ± 0.43 0.26 ± 0.51 0.234
 2007 0.43 ± 0.97 0.42 ± 0.87 0.44 ± 0.99 0.527
 1998–2007     0.295
  Decreased 3.8 4.0 3.5  
  Constant 11.3 10.3 12.3  
  Increased 84.9 85.7 84.2  
Retail bakery
 1998 0.16 ± 0.50 0.14 ± 0.43 0.17 ± 0.53 0.103
 2007 0.20 ± 0.72 0.19 ± 0.59 0.22 ± 0.80 0.141
 1998–2007     0.818
  Decreased 16.0 16.3 15.8  
  Constant 29.2 28.6 29.7  
  Increased 54.8 55.1 54.5  
Dairy product store
 1998 0.05 ± 0.13 0.05 ± 0.12 0.05 ± 0.13 0.815
 2007 0.08 ± 0.20 0.08 ± 0.16 0.08 ± 0.21 0.369
 1998–2007     0.194
  Decreased 5.9 6.1 5.6  
  Constant 31.3 29.7 32.9  
  Increased 62.8 64.2 61.5  
Health food store
 1998 0.07 ± 0.26 0.07 ± 0.25 0.07 ± 0.26 0.560
 2007 0.10 ± 0.40 0.10 ± 0.35 0.11 ± 0.43 0.649
 1998–2007     0.320
  Decreased 12.3 11.8 12.7  
  Constant 35.5 34.4 36.7  
  Increased 52.2 53.8 50.6  
Candy store
 1998 0.04 ± 0.30 0.03 ± 0.24 0.05 ± 0.34 0.098
 2007 0.04 ± 0.28 0.03 ± 0.22 0.05 ± 0.32 0.100
 1998–2007     0.166
  Decreased 13.8 14.7 12.8  
  Constant 54.8 55.6 54.1  
  Increased 31.4 29.7 33.1  
Fruit/vegetable market
 1998 0.03 ± 0.22 0.03 ± 0.18 0.04 ± 0.25 0.155
 2007 0.05 ± 0.27 0.04 ± 0.20 0.06 ± 0.31 0.090
 1998–2007     0.305
  Decreased 5.9 6.3 5.4  
  Constant 65.9 66.7 65.2  
  Increased 28.2 27.0 29.4  
Meat/fish market
 1998 0.08 ± 0.40 0.07 ± 0.35 0.09 ± 0.43 0.230
 2007 0.09 ± 0.45 0.08 ± 0.35 0.11 ± 0.51 0.207
 1998–2007     0.509
  Decreased 12.0 12.4 11.6  
  Constant 52.3 51.0 53.6  
  Increased 35.7 36.6 34.8  
Beverage store
 1998 0.05 ± 0.21 0.05 ± 0.21 0.05 ± 0.21 0.768
 2007 0.11 ± 0.44 0.11 ± 0.45 0.11 ± 0.38 0.978
 1998–2007     0.861
  Decreased 4.7 5.0 4.5  
  Constant 33.7 33.5 33.8  
  Increased 61.6 61.5 61.7  
  1. Sampling weights were used in the analyses
  2. ap values tested the differences in each variable between genders and were based on χ2 tests for categorical variables or t tests for continuous variables
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