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Table 4 Associations (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval) of changes in school neighborhood food environments within 800-m straight-line buffer zones during 1998–2007 with child overweight and obesity in 2007

From: Effects of school neighborhood food environments on childhood obesity at multiple scales: a longitudinal kindergarten cohort study in the USA

Food outlet type All (n = 7530) Boys (n = 3780) Girls (n = 3750) Urban (n = 5040) Non-urban (n = 2490)
Supermarket
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 1.13 [0.96, 1.34] 1.12 [0.88, 1.42] 1.18 [0.93, 1.50] 1.16 [0.94, 1.43] 1.16 [0.85, 1.58]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.91 [0.74, 1.12] 0.95 [0.73, 1.24] 0.84 [0.62, 1.14] 0.99 [0.76, 1.28] 0.76 [0.50, 1.16]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 1.10 [0.94, 1.29] 1.09 [0.88, 1.33] 1.11 [0.89, 1.40] 1.10 [0.92, 1.33] 1.02 [0.74, 1.42]
Convenience store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 0.96 [0.82, 1.12] 0.92 [0.74, 1.13] 1.02 [0.81, 1.27] 0.92 [0.77, 1.10] 1.14 [0.80, 1.62]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 1.13 [0.92, 1.39] 1.13 [0.86, 1.50] 1.14 [0.85, 1.52] 1.17 [0.90, 1.51] 1.00 [0.68, 1.48]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 1.05 [0.90, 1.22] 0.98 [0.80, 1.21] 1.15 [0.92, 1.43] 0.98 [0.81, 1.17] 1.46** [1.10, 1.95]
Full-service restaurant
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 0.89 [0.74, 1.06] 0.80 [0.63, 1.01] 0.98 [0.76, 1.26] 0.97 [0.77, 1.22] 0.75 [0.56, 1.02]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 1.02 [0.83, 1.27] 1.08 [0.82, 1.43] 1.00 [0.74, 1.36] 0.99 [0.75, 1.31] 1.11 [0.80, 1.54]
  Constant (ref)           
  Increased 0.86 [0.73, 1.01] 0.81 [0.65, 1.01] 0.92 [0.73, 1.16] 0.88 [0.72, 1.09] 0.76 [0.58, 1.01]
Fast-food restaurant
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 1.14 [0.97, 1.34] 1.20 [0.95, 1.51] 1.08 [0.85, 1.37] 1.15 [0.95, 1.38] 1.03 [0.73, 1.43]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 1.03 [0.82, 1.30] 1.27 [0.94, 1.73] 0.82 [0.58, 1.15] 0.97 [0.75, 1.25] 1.43 [0.78, 2.63]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 1.02 [0.87, 1.18] 1.09 [0.88, 1.36] 0.93 [0.75, 1.17] 1.11 [0.93, 1.33] 0.84 [0.63, 1.13]
Retail bakery
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 1.17 [0.96, 1.44] 1.23 [0.96, 1.59] 1.11 [0.83, 1.49] 1.16 [0.93, 1.45] 0.94 [0.53, 1.68]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.86 [0.67, 1.10] 0.95 [0.69, 1.31] 0.78 [0.53, 1.15] 0.84 [0.64, 1.11] 1.37 [0.71, 2.64]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.85 [0.72, 1.02] 0.89 [0.69, 1.14] 0.81 [0.64, 1.03] 0.83 [0.68, 1.01] 1.02 [0.68, 1.53]
Dairy product store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 0.78 [0.60, 1.01] 0.67* [0.48, 0.94] 0.90 [0.62, 1.31] 0.79 [0.61, 1.01] 0.65 [0.18, 2.27]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 1.26 [0.87, 1.83] 1.50 [0.94, 2.39] 1.01 [0.58, 1.74] 1.27 [0.87, 1.86] 1.45 [0.32, 6.68]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.89 [0.74, 1.06] 1.08 [0.85, 1.38] 0.71** [0.54, 0.92] 0.87 [0.71, 1.07] 0.90 [0.60, 1.35]
Health food store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 1.11 [0.89, 1.39] 1.10 [0.81, 1.51] 1.14 [0.81, 1.60] 1.05 [0.82, 1.36] 1.83** [1.17, 2.86]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 1.00 [0.75, 1.33] 0.98 [0.65, 1.46] 0.99 [0.62, 1.58] 1.01 [0.73, 1.40] 0.74 [0.33, 1.68]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 1.06 [0.88, 1.28] 0.94 [0.73, 1.21] 1.21 [0.92, 1.58] 1.00 [0.81, 1.25] 1.47* [1.00, 2.15]
Candy store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 1.29 [0.85, 1.95] 1.09 [0.64, 1.87] 1.55 [0.82, 2.91] 1.19 [0.76, 1.85] 1.35 [0.34, 5.42]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.87 [0.52, 1.45] 1.04 [0.54, 2.00] 0.73 [0.33, 1.61] 0.85 [0.48, 1.52] 1.25 [0.26, 5.95]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 1.18 [0.87, 1.61] 0.90 [0.59, 1.36] 1.50* [1.03, 2.20] 1.10 [0.80, 1.52] 1.70 [0.82, 3.50]
Fruit and vegetable market
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 1.34 [0.97, 1.85] 1.27 [0.81, 1.98] 1.52 [0.86, 2.68] 1.43* [1.01, 2.03] 1.28 [0.55, 2.95]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.71 [0.44, 1.16] 1.21 [0.64, 2.28] 0.42* [0.20, 0.90] 0.68 [0.40, 1.15] 0.79 [0.27, 2.32]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.89 [0.68, 1.17] 1.05 [0.74, 1.47] 0.73 [0.47, 1.14] 0.96 [0.73, 1.28] 0.67 [0.26, 1.74]
Meat and fish market
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 0.87 [0.67, 1.12] 1.01 [0.72, 1.42] 0.74 [0.48, 1.14] 0.89 [0.65, 1.21] 0.67 [0.39, 1.14]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.96 [0.66, 1.39] 0.79 [0.50, 1.26] 1.14 [0.62, 2.08] 0.93 [0.62, 1.41] 1.15 [0.60, 2.21]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.99 [0.77, 1.28] 0.85 [0.62, 1.15] 1.17 [0.83, 1.65] 0.97 [0.75, 1.27] 0.85 [0.41, 1.76]
Beverage store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 0.74 [0.55, 1.01] 0.87 [0.58, 1.31] 0.66 [0.43, 1.02] 0.77 [0.55, 1.08] 0.52 [0.20, 1.31]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 1.50 [0.97, 2.32] 0.87 [0.47, 1.61] 2.61** [1.46, 4.66] 1.42 [0.90, 2.26] 0.73 [0.14, 3.85]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 1.07 [0.90, 1.27] 1.07 [0.87, 1.33] 1.03 [0.80, 1.33] 1.05 [0.86, 1.29] 1.09 [0.73, 1.63]
  1. All models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parental education, and urbanicity. Italicized numbers indicate statistical significance (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001)
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