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Table 5 Associations (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval) of changes in school neighborhood food environments within 800-m straight-line buffer zones during 1998–2007 with child obesity in 2007

From: Effects of school neighborhood food environments on childhood obesity at multiple scales: a longitudinal kindergarten cohort study in the USA

Food outlet type All (n = 7530) Boys (n = 3780) Girls (n = 3750) Urban (n = 5040) Non-urban (n = 2490)
Supermarket
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 1.07 [0.88, 1.29] 1.10 [0.86, 1.41] 1.07 [0.81, 1.42] 1.09 [0.87, 1.36] 1.02 [0.71, 1.46]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.88 [0.69, 1.12] 0.92 [0.67, 1.26] 0.76 [0.53, 1.09] 0.90 [0.67, 1.20] 0.96 [0.56, 1.65]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.99 [0.82, 1.19] 1.05 [0.82, 1.35] 0.90 [0.69, 1.17] 1.01 [0.82, 1.25] 0.98 [0.65, 1.47]
Convenience store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 1.01 [0.84, 1.22] 0.91 [0.71, 1.16] 1.11 [0.84, 1.47] 0.96 [0.77, 1.19] 1.05 [0.66, 1.69]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 1.04 [0.79, 1.36] 1.22 [0.88, 1.68] 0.87 [0.56, 1.34] 1.12 [0.81, 1.56] 0.87 [0.51, 1.49]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 1.11 [0.92, 1.33] 0.97 [0.77, 1.23] 1.41** [1.09, 1.82] 0.96 [0.77, 1.20] 1.60* [1.10, 2.33]
Full-service restaurant
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 0.94 [0.75, 1.17] 0.88 [0.65, 1.17] 0.99 [0.72, 1.37] 0.97 [0.74, 1.27] 0.93 [0.61, 1.44]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 1.03 [0.79, 1.35] 0.95 [0.68, 1.34] 1.25 [0.85, 1.83] 1.02 [0.73, 1.42] 1.08 [0.68, 1.70]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.83 [0.67, 1.02] 0.74* [0.57, 0.95] 0.98 [0.72, 1.33] 0.82 [0.64, 1.06] 0.79 [0.52, 1.21]
Fast-food restaurant
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 0.96 [0.78, 1.18] 1.05 [0.81, 1.37] 0.87 [0.64, 1.20] 0.95 [0.76, 1.19] 1.07 [0.63, 1.84]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 1.18 [0.86, 1.61] 1.23 [0.81, 1.86] 1.12 [0.72, 1.75] 1.18 [0.84, 1.66] 1.02 [0.44, 2.37]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 1.06 [0.88, 1.29] 1.05 [0.82, 1.35] 1.06 [0.80, 1.41] 1.27* [1.02, 1.59] 0.72 [0.46, 1.12]
Retail bakery
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 1.04 [0.81, 1.34] 1.02 [0.74, 1.42] 1.05 [0.72, 1.54] 0.90 [0.70, 1.16] 1.65 [0.67, 4.07]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.91 [0.65, 1.26] 0.86 [0.56, 1.32] 0.94 [0.57, 1.56] 1.01 [0.72, 1.42] 1.07 [0.38, 3.02]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.93 [0.74, 1.16] 1.12 [0.84, 1.49] 0.74 [0.53, 1.03] 0.91 [0.72, 1.14] 1.13 [0.56, 2.28]
Dairy product store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 0.76 [0.54, 1.06] 0.50** [0.32, 0.77] 1.22 [0.81, 1.85] 0.85 [0.62, 1.16] 0.23 [0.04, 1.49]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 1.68* [1.07, 2.65] 2.92*** [1.58, 5.40] 0.79 [0.43, 1.46] 1.67* [1.07, 2.61] 2.49 [0.27, 22.76]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.91 [0.73, 1.13] 1.06 [0.80, 1.40] 0.71* [0.51, 0.98] 0.89 [0.70, 1.14] 0.86 [0.51, 1.45]
Health food store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 0.92 [0.69, 1.23] 1.05 [0.73, 1.51] 0.77 [0.51, 1.17] 0.95 [0.70, 1.30] 0.86 [0.42, 1.74]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.96 [0.65, 1.42] 0.88 [0.52, 1.49] 1.07 [0.63, 1.85] 0.92 [0.61, 1.40] 1.01 [0.41, 2.46]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 1.09 [0.87, 1.38] 1.02 [0.75, 1.38] 1.22 [0.89, 1.68] 1.16 [0.90, 1.50] 1.06 [0.64, 1.76]
Candy store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  >  0 0.89 [0.52, 1.52] 0.95 [0.46, 1.96] 0.83 [0.42, 1.66] 0.75 [0.43, 1.29] 1.00 [0.20, 4.97]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.99 [0.53, 1.87] 1.22 [0.52, 2.89] 0.75 [0.33, 1.73] 1.12 [0.58, 2.16] 1.30 [0.19, 8.96]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 1.18 [0.86, 1.63] 1.43 [0.93, 2.20] 0.87 [0.54, 1.40] 1.13 [0.78, 1.64] 1.44 [0.80, 2.61]
Fruit and vegetable market
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 1.23 [0.75, 2.01] 1.20 [0.64, 2.23] 1.22 [0.57, 2.62] 1.31 [0.76, 2.25] 1.18 [0.38, 3.68]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.78 [0.43, 1.44] 0.85 [0.35, 2.08] 0.75 [0.31, 1.80] 0.73 [0.38, 1.40] 0.58 [0.13, 2.61]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 1.05 [0.76, 1.46] 1.05 [0.73, 1.51] 1.00 [0.60, 1.66] 1.24 [0.92, 1.66] 0.48 [0.13, 1.72]
Meat and fish market
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 1.13 [0.83, 1.52] 1.06 [0.70, 1.60] 1.16 [0.71, 1.89] 1.16 [0.85, 1.58] 0.82 [0.28, 2.42]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.57* [0.35, 0.91] 0.60 [0.32, 1.11] 0.59 [0.31, 1.12] 0.53* [0.32, 0.87] 0.78 [0.24, 2.57]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.98 [0.74, 1.31] 1.06 [0.76, 1.47] 0.86 [0.55, 1.35] 0.99 [0.74, 1.33] 1.04 [0.34, 3.21]
Beverage store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 0.89 [0.62, 1.28] 0.96 [0.61, 1.52] 0.89 [0.50, 1.60] 0.84 [0.56, 1.25] 1.14 [0.49, 2.63]
 1998–2007
  Decreased 1.14 [0.65, 2.01] 1.18 [0.61, 2.28] 1.03 [0.46, 2.28] 1.21 [0.67, 2.18] 1.00 [1.00, 1.00]
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 1.11 [0.89, 1.37] 1.09 [0.83, 1.44] 1.05 [0.76, 1.46] 1.10 [0.87, 1.39] 0.88 [0.51, 1.53]
  1. All models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parental education, and urbanicity. Italicized numbers indicate statistical significance (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001)
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