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Table 1 Demographic and laboratory characteristics of study children

From: Acute kidney injury is associated with impaired cognition and chronic kidney disease in a prospective cohort of children with severe malaria

Characteristic CC (n = 173) SMA (n = 219) CM (n = 260) p value
Demographics
 Age, median (IQR), years 3.6 (2.6, 4.6) 2.9 (2.1, 4.5) 3.5 (2.5, 4.9) 0.0002
 Female sex, (%) no. 94 (54.3) 86 (39.3) 107 (41.2) 0.006
 Weight-for-age z score, median (IQR) − 1.0 (− 1.5, − 0.3) − 1.5 (− 2.2, − 0.7) − 1.2 (− 1.9, − 0.5) 0.0001
 Height-for-age z score, median (IQR) − 1.1 (− 1.7, − 0.4) − 1.0 (− 1.9, − 0.3) − 0.6 (− 1.9, − 0.5) 0.002
 Socioeconomic status score, median (IQR)1 9 (8, 12) 9 (7, 11) 9 (8, 11) 0.355
 Home environment z score, median (IQR)1 0.12 (− 0.71, 0.85) − 0.05 (− 0.71, 0.67) − 0.02 (− 0.71, 0.71) 0.523
Maternal education level, no. (%)1
 Primary 6 or lower 47 (27.2) 88 (38.6) 80 (36.7) 0.348
 Primary 7 42 (24.3) 47 (20.6) 45 (20.6)
 Secondary or higher 74 (42.8) 80 (35.1) 83 (38.1)
 Not known 10 (5.8) 13 (5.7) 10 (4.6)
Paternal education level, no. (%)1
 Primary 6 or lower 24 (13.9) 50 (22.9) 38 (16.7) 0.076
 Primary 7 33 (19.1) 31 (14.2) 40 (17.5)
 Secondary or higher 90 (52.0) 98 (45.0) 98 (43.0)
 Not known 26 (15.0) 39 (17.9) 52 (22.8)
 Child any education, no. (%)1 72 (41.9) 56 (26.3) 85 (38.1) 0.008
Laboratory characteristics2     SMA vs. CM
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 11.8 (11.0, 12.6) 3.9 (3.2, 4.5) 6.8 (5.1, 8.7) < 0.0001
 Glucose, mmol/L 6.4 (4.7, 8.2) 6.6 (4.9, 8.9) 0.162
 Lactate, mmol/L 4.8 (3.0, 8.0) 3.8 (2.2, 6.7) 0.002
 WBC, × 103/μL 8.6 (7.2, 10.6) 11.5 (8.2, 16.2) 9.4 (7.2, 13.9) 0.0001
 Platelet, ×103/μL 383 (289, 449) 149 (91, 225) 60 (34, 111) < 0.0001
 Total bilirubin, mg/dL 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) 1.3 (0.7, 2.1) 1.6 (0.9. 2.7) 0.004
 Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), U/L 162 (232, 311) 762 (621, 990) 829 (630, 1116) 0.069
 Plasma albumin, g/dL 3.7 (3.4, 3.9) 2.6 (2.3, 3.0) 2.6 (2.4, 2.9) 0.898
 Sodium, mmol/L 137 (135, 138) 134 (132, 136) 132 (128, 136) < 0.0001
 Peripheral parasite density, parasites/uL 0 (0, 0) 34,970 (10,085, 134,925) 48,420 (10,830, 282,400) 0.0286
 Plasma PfHRP2, ng/mL 5 (5, 118) 944 (367, 2790) 2828 (1024, 5546) < 0.0001
 Creatinine, mg/dL 0.30 (0.24, 0.35) 0.35 (0.28, 0.46) 0.42 (0.31, 0.55) < 0.0001
 BUN, mg/dL 7 (5, 9) 13 (9, 20) 17 (12, 25) < 0.0001
  1. Continuous measures presented as median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated. Continuous measures compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Count measures compared using Pearson’s chi-square or Fisher’s exact, as appropriate
  2. 1Assessed on survivors (n = 218 in SMA, n = 228 in CM)
  3. 2Data on laboratory characteristics presented for all children, as available, but analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum test comparing the differences between SMA and CM