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Table 4 Association between ethnicity/immigration status and prediabetes incidence using glucose thresholds according to the American Diabetes Association

From: Ethnic differences in prediabetes incidence among immigrants to Canada: a population-based cohort study

Study population, variable No. new cases of prediabetes Person-years of follow-up Crude incidence (no./100 person-years) Cumulative incidence (%)a Age, sex, and area-income-adjusted HR (95% CI)b, c Fully adjusted HR (95% CI)c, d
Immigrants, ethnicity
 South Asian 25,465 433,322 5.88 47.10 1.64 (1.59–1.68) 1.65 (1.60–1.69)
 Sub-Saharan African and Caribbean 12,254 267,584 4.58 39.74 1.30 (1.26–1.35) 1.33 (1.29–1.37)
 South-East Asian 10,632 213,383 4.98 40.39 1.35 (1.31–1.39) 1.37 (1.33–1.41)
 Latin American 9923 206,875 4.80 39.79 1.31 (1.27–1.36) 1.32 (1.28–1.36)
 East Asian 25,741 477,038 5.40 39.52 1.31 (1.27–1.34) 1.30 (1.26–1.34)
 West Asian and Arab 10,053 229,832 4.37 36.86 1.21 (1.17–1.25) 1.19 (1.15–1.23)
 Eastern European 12,082 312,374 3.87 32.37 1.04 (1.01–1.07) 1.00 (0.97–1.04)
 Western European 6371 167,631 3.80 32.25 Referent Referent
Entire cohort, immigration status
 Immigrants to Canada 112,568 9,996,199 4.88 43.73 1.29 (1.28–1.30) 1.27 (1.26–1.28)c
 Long-term Canadian Residents 457,217 2,308,649 4.57 35.89 Referent NA
  1. Cases who met any of the following prediabetes definitions on subsequent laboratory testing: (1) fasting glucose 5.7 to 6.9 mmol/L, (2) 2-h glucose 7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L on 75-g OGTT, or (3) HbA1c of 5.7–6.4% (39 to 46 mmol/mol)
  2. aCumulative incidence is based on the cumulative incidence probability for prediabetes
  3. bAdjusted for age, sex, and area income
  4. cCases censored at time when prediabetes definition was first met, if criteria for diabetes met, lost health care coverage, died, or December 31, 2013
  5. dAdjusted for age, sex, area income, education, ethnicity, marital status, immigration visa category, and duration