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Fig. 1 | BMC Medicine

Fig. 1

From: Performance of the Framingham risk models and pooled cohort equations for predicting 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Fig. 1

Flow diagram of selected studies. Two searches were performed; one in MEDLINE and Embase and one in Scopus and Web of Science. Only studies identified by both searches were screened for eligibility, supplemented with records identified from previous systematic reviews. One study could describe more than one external validation (e.g. one for men and one for women); therefore, 61 studies described 167 external validations. Calibration was reported in 94 validations (41 directly reported, 19 provided by the authors on request, 34 estimated from calibration tables and calibration plots), and discrimination in 103 validations (91 c-statistics directly reported, 12 provided by the authors on request. Precision of c-statistic: 45 directly reported, 24 provided by the authors, 32 estimated from the sample size and 2 not reported). Some external validations were excluded because cohorts were used more than once to validate the same model (Additional file 9). *For example, no cardiovascular outcome and not written in English. The Framingham Wilson and ATP III models were developed to predict the risk of fatal or nonfatal coronary heart disease, and the PCE model was developed to predict the risk of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular disease. External validations that used a different outcome were excluded from the analyses (Additional file 8)

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