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Table 1 Main characteristics of conventional two-arm and alternative multi-arm duration trial designs

From: Optimising trial designs to identify appropriate antibiotic treatment durations

  Two-arm duration design Bayesian multi-arm, response-adaptive randomisation design Multi-arm, play-the-winner design Multi-arm, fixed duration design Multi-arm, drop-the-loser duration design
Obtain information on treatment durations Only two considered durations Can model the entire duration–response curve, including estimates for durations that were not used Can model the entire duration–response curve, including estimates for durations that were not used Can model the entire duration–response curve, including estimates for durations that were not used Can model the entire duration–response curve, including estimates for durations that were not used
Randomisation probabilities Fixed Variable and possibility to drop arms Fixed, but with possibility to select shortest duration with high probability of being non-inferior for comparison with standard duration Fixed Fixed, but with possibility to drop arms
Higher chance for patients to be randomised to better-performing treatment arm No Yes Yes No No, but poor performing arms can be dropped