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Table 2 HIV prevalence in FSWs in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), as reported in studies using probability-based sampling

From: HIV epidemiology among female sex workers and their clients in the Middle East and North Africa: systematic review, meta-analyses, and meta-regressions

Country Author, year [citation] Year(s) of data collection City/province Study site Sampling Population Sample size HIV prevalence*
% 95% CI
Afghanistan SAR AIDS HDS, 2008 [53] 2006–2007 Jalalabad Community TLS FSWs 45 0 NR
SAR AIDS HDS, 2008 [53] 2006–2007 Mazar-i-Sharif Community TLS FSWs 87 0 NR
NACP, 2010 [54] (round I) 2009 Kabul Community RDS FSWs 368 0 NR
NACP, 2012 [55] (round II) 2012 Herat Community RDS FSWs 344 0.9 NR
NACP, 2012 [55] (round II) 2012 Kabul Community RDS FSWs 333 0 NR
NACP, 2012 [55] (round II) 2012 Mazar-i-Sharif Community RDS FSWs 355 0 NR
Egypt MOH, 2006 [56] (round I) 2006 Cairo Community Conv** FSWs 118 0.8 NR
MOH, 2010 [57] (round II) 2010 Cairo Community Conv** FSWs 200 0 NR
Iran Navadeh, 2012 [58] 2010 Kerman Community RDS FSWs 139 0 NR
Sajadi, 2013 [59] (round I) 2010 National Facilities serving vulnerable women MCS FSWs 817 4.5 NR
Kazerooni, 2014 [60] 2010–2011 Shiraz Community RDS FSWs 278 4.7 NR
Moaeyedi-Nia, 2016 [61] 2012–2013 Tehran Community RDS FSWs 161 5 NR
Mirzazadeh, 2016 [62] (round II) 2015 National Facilities serving vulnerable women MCS FSWs 1337 2.1 0.9–4.6
Karami, 2017 [63] 2016 Tehran Community TLS FSWs 369 4.6 NR
Jordan WHO, 2011 [33] (round I) 2009 National Community RDS FSWs 225 0 NR
MOH, 2014 [64] (round II) 2013 Amman Community RDS FSWs 358 0.6 NR
MOH, 2014 [64] (round II) 2013 Irbid Community RDS FSWs 102 0 NR
MOH, 2014 [64] (round II) 2013 Zarqa Community RDS FSWs 212 0.5 NR
Lebanon Mahfoud, 2010 [65] 2007–2008 Greater Beirut Community RDS FSWs 95 0 NR
Libya Valadez, 2013 [66] (round I) 2010–2011 Tripoli Community RDS FSWs 69 15.7 3.2–32.6
Morocco MOH, 2012 [67] 2011–2012 Agadir Community RDS FSWs 364 5.1 2.1–8.6
MOH, 2012 [67] 2011–2012 Fes Community RDS FSWs 359 1.8 0–2.1
MOH, 2012 [67] 2011–2012 Rabat Community RDS FSWs 392 0 NR
MOH, 2012 [67] 2011–12 Tanger Community RDS FSWs 319 1.4 0.4–3.3
Pakistan Bokhari, 2007 [68] 2004 Lahore Red-light district SyCS FSWs 378 0.5 NR
NACP, 2005 [38] (round I) 2005 Faisalabad Community RDS and TLS Kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 400 0 NR
NACP, 2005 [38] (round I) 2005 Hyderabad Community SyRS, RDS, and TLS Brothel, kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 400 0 NR
NACP, 2005 [38] (round I) 2005 Karachi Community SyRS, RDS, and TLS Brothel, kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 400 0.8 NR
NACP, 2005 [38] (round I) 2005 Lahore Community SyRS, RDS, and TLS Brothel, kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 400 0 NR
NACP, 2005 [38] (round I) 2005 Multan Community Conv (take all), RDS, and TLS Brothel, kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 400 0 NR
NACP, 2005 [38] (round I) 2005 Peshawar Community MCS Kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 359 0 NR
NACP, 2005 [38] (round I) 2005 Quetta Community RDS and MCS Kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 411 0.7 NR
NACP, 2005 [38] (round I) 2005 Sukkur Community RDS and TLS Kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 368 0 NR
NACP, 2007 [69] (round II) 2006 Bannu Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 194 0 NR
NACP, 2007 [69] (round II) 2006 Faisalabad Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 400 0 NR
NACP, 2007 [69] (round II) 2006 Gujranwala Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 400 0 NR
NACP, 2007 [69] (round II) 2006 Hyderabad Community SyRS and MCS Brothel, kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 398 0.3 NR
NACP, 2007 [69] (round II) 2006 Karachi Community SyRS and MCS Brothel, kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 403 0 NR
NACP, 2007 [69] (round II) 2006 Lahore Community SyRS and MCS Brothel, kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 425 0.02 NR
NACP, 2007 [69] (round II) 2006 Larkana Community SyRS and MCS Brothel, kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 400 0 NR
NACP, 2007 [69] (round II) 2006 Multan Community SyRS and MCS Brothel, kothikhana, home, and street-based FSWs 400 0 NR
NACP, 2007 [69] (round II) 2006 Peshawar Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 423 0 NR
NACP, 2007 [69] (round II) 2006 Quetta Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 398 0 NR
NACP, 2007 [69] (round II) 2006 Sargodha Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 400 0 NR
NACP, 2007 [69] (round II) 2006 Sukkur Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 400 0 NR
Hawkes, 2009 [70] 2007 Abbottabad Community RDS FSWs 107 0 NR
Hawkes, 2009 [70] 2007 Rawalpindi Community RDS FSWs 426 0 NR
Khan, 2011 [71] 2007 Lahore Community RDS FSWs 730 0.7 NR
NACP, 2010 [72] (special IBBSS among FSWs) 2009 Punjab and Sindh Community SyRS and MCS FSWs 2197 1.0 NR
NACP, 2012 [40] (round IV) 2012 DG Khan Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 375 0.5 0.1–1.9
NACP, 2012 [40] (round IV) 2012 Faisalabad Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 376 0 NR
NACP, 2012 [40] (round IV) 2012 Haripur Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 211 0.9 0.3–3.4
NACP, 2012 [40] (round IV) 2012 Karachi Community SyRS and MCS Brothel, kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 377 1.9 0.9–3.8
NACP, 2012 [40] (round IV) 2012 Lahore Community SyRS and MCS Brothel, kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 375 0.5 0.1–1.9
NACP, 2012 [40] (round IV) 2012 Larkana Community SyRS and MCS Brothel, kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 375 1.9 0.9–3.8
NACP, 2012 [40] (round IV) 2012 Multan Community SyRS and MCS Brothel, kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 375 0.3 0.05–1.5
NACP, 2012 [40] (round IV) 2012 Peshawar Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 367 0 NR
NACP, 2012 [40] (round IV) 2012 Quetta Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 345 0 NR
NACP, 2012 [40] (round IV) 2012 Rawalpindi Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 375 0 NR
NACP, 2012 [40] (round IV) 2012 Sargodha Community SyRS and MCS Brothel, kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 345 0.3 0.05–1.6
NACP, 2012 [40] (round IV) 2012 Sukkur Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 375 0.8 0.3–2.3
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Bahawalpur Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 351 0 NR
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Bannu Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 196 1.5 1–4.4
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 DG Khan Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 364 0.8 0.3–2.4
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Gujranwala Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 304 0.7 0.2–2.4
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Gujrat Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 250 0.4 0.1–2.2
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Hyderabad Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 364 2.2 1.1–4.3
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Karachi Community SyRS and MCS Brothel, kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 387 2.6 1.4–4.7
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Kasur Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 364 0 NR
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Larkana Community SyRS and MCS Brothel, kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 364 4.1 2.5–6.7
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Mirpurkhas Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 364 4.1 2.5–6.7
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Nawabshah Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 364 3.8 2.3–6.4
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Peshawar Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 265 3 1.5–5.8
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Quetta Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 364 0 NR
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Rawalpindi Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 364 0.3 0.1–1.5
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Sheikhupura Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 363 1.7 1.1–4.9
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Sialkot Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 193 0 NR
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Sukkur Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 364 8.8 6.3–12.2
NACP, 2017 [42] (round V) 2016–2017 Turbat Community SyRS and MCS Kothikhana, home, street-based, and other FSWs 72 0 NR
Somalia Testa, 2008 [73] (round I) 2008 Hargeisa Community RDS FSWs 237 5.2 2.5–8.5
IOM, 2017 [74] (round II) 2014 Hargeisa Community RDS FSWs 96 4.8 0.2–9.3
Sudan Elkarim, 2002 [75] 2002 National Community MSysRS FSWs 367 4.4 NR
Abdelrahim, 2010 [76] 2008 Khartoum Community RDS FSWs 321 0.9 0.1–2.2
NACP, 2010 [77] 2008–09 Gezira Community RDS FSWs 267 0.1 NR
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 Alshamalia Community RDS FSWs 305 0.3 0–1
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 Blue Nile Community RDS FSWs 279 1.5 0–3
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 Gadarif Community RDS FSWs 282 0.6 0–1
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 Gezira Community RDS FSWs 296 0.7 0–1
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 Kassala Community RDS FSWs 288 5.0 2–8
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 Khartoum Community RDS FSWs 287 0 NR
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 North Darfur Community RDS FSWs 303 0.7 0–3
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 North Kordofan Community RDS FSWs 296 1 0–3
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 Red Sea Community RDS FSWs 293 7.7 4–12
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 River Nile Community RDS FSWs 291 0.7 0–2
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 Sinnar Community RDS FSWs 303 0.7 0–2
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 South Darfur Community RDS FSWs 299 0.2 0–1
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 West Darfur Community RDS FSWs 284 1 0–3
NACP, 2012 [78] 2011 White Nile Community RDS FSWs 288 1.3 0–3
MOH, 2016 [79] 2015–2016 Juba, South Sudan Community RDS FSWs 835 37.9 33.6–42.2
Tunisia Hsairi, 2012 [80] 2009 Tunis, Sfax, and Sousse Community RDS Street-based FSWs 703 0.4 NR
Hsairi, 2012 [80] 2011 Tunis Community TLS Street-based FSWs 357 0.6 0–1.3
Hsairi, 2012 [80] 2011 Sfax Community TLS Street-based FSWs 284 0 NR
Hsairi, 2012 [80] 2011 Sousse Community TLS Street-based FSWs 347 1.2 0.02–2.3
Yemen Stulhofer, 2008 [81] (round I) 2008 Aden Community RDS FSWs 244 1.3 0–2.9
MOH, 2014 [82] (round I) 2010–2011 Hodeida Community RDS FSWs 301 0 NR
  1. The table is sorted by year(s) of data collection
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, Conv convenience, FSWs female sex workers, IBBSS integrated bio-behavioral surveillance survey, IOM International Organization for Migration, MCS multistage cluster sampling, MOH Ministry of Health, MSyRS multistage systematic random sampling, NACP National AIDS Control Programme, NR not reported, RDS respondent-driven sampling, SAR AIDS HDS South Asia Region AIDS Human Development Sector, SyCS systematic cluster sampling, SyRS systematic random sampling, TLS time-location sampling, WHO World Health Organization
  3. *The decimal places of the prevalence figures are as reported in the original reports, but prevalence figures with more than one decimal places were rounded to one decimal place, with the exception of those below 0.1%. Most studies did not report the 95% CIs associated with prevalence
  4. **Integrated bio-behavioral surveillance survey with sampling initially planned as respondent-driven but ended up being a convenience for logistical reasons