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Table 4 HIV prevalence in clients of FSWs (or proxy populations of clients of FSWs such as male STI clinic attendees) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

From: HIV epidemiology among female sex workers and their clients in the Middle East and North Africa: systematic review, meta-analyses, and meta-regressions

Country Author, year [citation] Year(s) of data collection City/province Study site Sampling Population Sample size HIV prev* Sexual contacts
% 95% CI
Algeria MOH, 2009 [113] 2004 Oran Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 41 4.9 NR NR
MOH, 2009 [113] 2004 Tamanrasset Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 105 0 0 NR
MOH, 2009 [113] 2004 Tizi-Ouzou Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 11 9.1 NR NR
MOH, 2009 [113] 2007 National Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 571 3.3 NR NR
Djibouti Rodier, 1993 [84] 1987 Djibouti STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 252 0.8 NR NR
Rodier, 1993 [84] 1988 Djibouti STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 249 0.8 NR NR
Fox, 1989 [114] NR NR NR Conv Clients of FSWs 105 1.0 NR Clients of FSWs
Rodier, 1993 [84] 1990 Djibouti STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 106 1.9 NR NR
OMS, 2001 [115] 1990 NR STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees NR 2.2 NR NR
Rodier, 1993 [84] 1991 Djibouti STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 193 10.4 NR NR
OMS, 2001 [115] 1991 NR STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees NR 9.2 NR NR
MOH, 1993 [116] 1992 NR Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees NR 11.6 NR NR
MOH, 1993 [116] 1993 NR Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 411 14.4 NR NR
MOH, 2002 [117] 2001–2002 Djibouti STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 237 34.6 NR NR
Bortolotti, 2007 [6, 118] 2006 Djibouti STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 72 5.6 1.5–13.6 NR
Egypt Sheba, 1988 [88] 1986–1987 Multiple cities STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 302 0 NR NR
Sadek, 1991 [119] 1987–1988 Cairo STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 140 0.7 NR NR
Sadek, 1991 [119] 1989–1990 Cairo STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 125 0.8 NR NR
Fox, 1994 [120] 1993 Alexandria STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 200 0 NR NR
Fox, 1994 [120] 1993 Cairo STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 300 0.3 NR NR
Saleh, 2000 [121] 1998–2000 Alexandria STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 295 0 NR NR
Kuwait NAP, 1999 [122] 1984–1998 Sabah, Kuwait STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 3097 0.02 NR NR
Murzi, 1989 [123] 1988 Kuwait STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 305 0 NR NR
Al-Owaish, 2000 [124] 1996–1997 Kuwait STI clinic SyRS STI clinic attendees (Kuwaiti) 617 0 NR 23% reported contact with FSWs, 1% with MSWs, 35% with girlfriend, 12% with a mix of the above
Al-Owaish, 2000 [124] 1996–1997 Kuwait STI clinic SyRS STI clinic attendees (non-Kuwaiti) 1367 0 NR 61% reported contact with FSWs, 0.5% with MSWs, 28.5% with girlfriend, 3% with a mix of the above
Al-Owaish, 2002 [125] 2002 Kuwait STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees (non-Kuwaiti) 599 0 NR NR
Al-Mutairi, 2007 [126] 2003–2004 Kuwait STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees (predom. men) 520 0 NR 79% reported contact with FSWs
Morocco Heikel, 1999 [127] 1992–1996 Casablanca STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 1131 0.9 NR NR
Manhart, 1996 [128] 1996 Agadir, Tanger, and Marrakech STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 223 1.4 NR NR
Alami, 2002 [129] 2001 Rabat, Sale, Beni Mellal, and Marrakech Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 422 0 NR 70.7% reported new sexual partner, 47% multiple sexual partners in the past 3 months
MOH, 2001 [130] 2001 Marrakech, Beni Mellal, and Rabat, Sale Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 422 0 NR NR
Khattabi, 2005 [131] 2004 National Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees NR 0.4 NR NR
MOH, 2013 [132] 2006 National Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 1180 0.2 NR NR
MOH, 2013 [132] 2007 National Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 986 0.4 NR NR
MOH, 2013 [132] 2008 National Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 1237 0.5 NR NR
MOH, 2013 [132] 2009 National Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 1103 0.3 NR NR
MOH, 2013 [132] 2010 National Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 1181 0.7 NR NR
MOH, 2013 [133] 2011 Fes, Meknes, and Laayoune Boujdour VCT Conv STI clinic attendees 88 2.3 NR NR
MOH, 2013 [132] 2012 National Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 1070 0.3 NR NR
MOH, 2013 [133] 2012 National VCT and STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 1297 0.4 NR NR
Pakistan Mujeeb, 1993 [134] NR Karachi STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 32 0 NR NR
Memon, 1997 [135] 1994–1995 Hyderabad STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees (predom. men) 50 0 NR NR
NAP, 1996 [136] 1995 Karachi STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees (predom. men) 402 0 NR NR
NAP, 1996 [136] 1995 Lahore STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees (predom. men) 295 0 NR NR
Rehan, 2003 [137] 1999 Karachi STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 138 0 NR 43% reported contact with FSWs, 12% with casual heterosexual contact, 11.6% with MSM, 18.4% reported bisexuality
Rehan, 2003 [137] 1999 Lahore STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 148 0 NR NR
Rehan, 2003 [137] 1999 Peshawar STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 93 1.1 NR NR
Rehan, 2003 [137] 1999 Quetta STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 86 0 NR NR
Bhutto, 2011 [138] 2000–2009 Larkana STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 4288 0.06 NR 83% reported a history of contact with FSWs
Bokhari, 2007 [68] 2004 Karachi Trucking agencies SRS Truck driver clients of FSWs 120 0 NR Subsample including only clients of FSWs
Razvi, 2014 [139] 2010–2014 Abbottabad STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 465 1.1 NR 8% refused to answer, 70% of the rest reported contact with FSWs, 21% with MSM, 7.5% with married women
NAP, 2012 [140] 2011 Balochistan Mines SRS Mine workers clients of FSWs 381 0 NR Subsample including only men reporting contact with FSWs at last sex
Somalia Ismail, 1990 [141] 1986 Mogadishu STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 101 0 NR 54% reported contact with FSWs
Scott, 1991 [106] 1989 Mogadishu STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 50 0 NR NR
Burans, 1990 [105] NR Mogadishu NR Conv STI clinic attendees (80% soldiers) 45 0 NR 40% reported contact with FSWs
Corwin, 1991 [107] 1990 Chismayu, Merca, and Mogadishu NR Conv Partners of FSWs 26 0 NR Partners of FSWs
Duffy, 1999 [142] 1999 Hargeisa Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 106 0.9 NR NR
WHO, 2005 [143] 2004 Bossasso Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 78 1.3 NR NR
WHO, 2005 [143] 2004 Hargeisa Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 52 9.6 NR NR
WHO, 2005 [143] 2004 Mogadishu Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 46 4.4 NR NR
UNHCR, 2007 [144] 2006–2007 Dadaab refugee camp STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 199 0.5 NR NR
Ismail, 2007 [145] 2007 Hargeisa STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 108 7.4 NR NR
NAP, 2010 [146] 2007 Puntland Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees NR 1.5 NR NR
Sudan McCarthy, 1989 [147] 1987 Port Sudan and Suakin NR Conv Clients of FSWs 157 0 NR Subsample including only clients of FSWs
McCarthy, 1989 [148] 1987–1988 Gederef, Port Sudan, Kassala, Omdurman, and Juba Outpatient military clinics Conv Soldiers clients of FSWs 398 2.5 NR Subsample including only soldiers reporting a history of contact with FSWs
McCarthy, 1995 [109] NR Juba, South Sudan STI clinics Conv STI clinic attendees clients of FSWs 37 13.5 NR Subsample including only men reporting contact with FSWs in the past 10 years
US Cens. Bureau, 2017 [149] 2004 Khartoum Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 72 1.4 NR NR
US Cens. Bureau, 2017 [149] 2004 Red Sea Sent. surv. Conv STI clinic attendees 164 1.8 NR NR
Yemen Abdol-Quauder, 1993 [150] 1992 Sanaa STI clinic Conv STI clinic attendees 30 0 NR NR
  1. The table is sorted by year(s) of data collection or year of publication if the year of data collection was not reported
  2. Abbreviations: Cens Census, CI confidence interval, Conv convenience, FSWs female sex workers, MENA HIV ESP MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project, MOH Ministry of Health, NAP National AIDS Program, NR not reported, OMS Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Predom. predominantly, Prev prevalence, Sent. surv. sentinel surveillance, SRS simple random sampling, STI sexually transmitted infection, SyRS systematic random sampling, UNHCR United Nations Higher Commission for Refugees, VCT voluntary counseling and testing, WHO World Health Organization
  3. *The decimal places of the prevalence figures are as reported in the original reports, but prevalence figures with more than one decimal places were rounded to one decimal place, with the exception of those below 0.1%. Most studies did not report the 95% CIs associated with prevalence