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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of deaths by study group

From: Automated versus physician assignment of cause of death for verbal autopsies: randomized trial of 9374 deaths in 117 villages in India

  Overall
(n = 9374)
Standard (physician assignment)
(n = 4651)
Automated assignment
(n = 4723)
Study sites
 Gujarat 5174 (55%) 2562 (55%) 2612 (55%)
 Punjab 4200 (45%) 2089 (45%) 2111 (45%)
Age groups
 Adult (12–69 years) 8704 (93%) 4311 (93%) 4393 (93%)
 Child (28 days to 11 years) 403 (4%) 190 (4%) 213 (5%)
 Neonate (0–27 days) 267 (3%) 150 (3%) 117 (2%)
Sex of the deceased*
 Male 6229 (66%) 3086 (66%) 3143 (67%)
 Female 3143 (34%) 1564 (34%) 1579 (33%)
Deceased’s education level*
 No formal education 4623 (49%) 2317 (50%) 2306 (49%)
 1–9 years 2591 (28%) 1252 (27%) 1339 (28%)
 10+ years 1189 (13%) 596 (13%) 593 (13%)
 Not applicable as ≤ 5 years 570 (6%) 292 (6%) 278 (6%)
Deceased’s type of house*
 Semi-solid/thatched 7442 (79%) 3702 (79%) 3740 (79%)
 Solid 1855 (20%) 915 (20%) 940 (20%)
Location of death*
 Home 6558 (70%) 3233 (70%) 3325 (70%)
 Facility 1610 (17%) 812 (17%) 798 (17%)
 Other 1190 (13%) 599 (13%) 591 (13%)
Adult key symptoms
 Fever 2834 (33%) 1400 (32%) 1434 (33%)
 Breathlessness 2171 (25%) 998 (23%) 1173 (27%)
 Chest pain 1896 (22%) 848 (20%) 1048 (24%)
 Cough 1798 (21%) 847 (20%) 951 (22%)
 Weight loss 1688 (19%) 710 (16%) 978 (22%)
 Injury 1554 (18%) 832 (19%) 722 (16%)
 Paralysis/stroke 685 (8%) 294 (7%) 391 (9%)
 Diarrhea 677 (8%) 299 (7%) 378 (9%)
 Jaundice 412 (5%) 191 (4%) 221 (5%)
Child key symptoms
 Fever 179 (44%) 95 (50%) 84 (39%)
 Diarrhea 76 (19%) 36 (19%) 40 (19%)
 Jaundice 58 (14%) 40 (21%) 18 (8%)
 Injury 61 (15%) 24 (13%) 37 (17%)
 Cough 57 (14%) 30 (16%) 27 (13%)
Neonate key symptoms
 Breathing problems 60 (23%) 31 (21%) 29 (25%)
 Fever 36 (13%) 15 (10%) 21 (18%)
 Jaundice 36 (13%) 29 (19%) 7 (6%)
 Injury 3 (1%) 1 (1%) 2 (2%)
  1. Data are in (%). Key symptoms refer to a subset of symptoms of each age group that are essential to distinguish various CODs
  2. *Every effort was made to collect data; however, deaths with missing data for sex were 1 (0%) and 1 (0%), for education level were 194 (4%) and 207 (4%), for type of house were 34 (1%) and 43 (1%), and for location of death were 7 (0%) and 9 (0%), for physician and computer assignment study groups, respectively