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Table 3 Cause of death counts, proportions, and rankings for adults

From: Automated versus physician assignment of cause of death for verbal autopsies: randomized trial of 9374 deaths in 117 villages in India

Rank Cause of death No. of deaths Standard (physician assigned), 7% Proportion, % (rank)
Standard (physician-assigned) Mean algorithm estimated deaths 2 or more algorithms agreed Require training data Do not require training data
Total Both physicians initially agreed NBC King-Lu SmartVA InSilicoVA InSilicoVA-NT InterVA-4
  Adult (12–69 years)
1 Ischemic heart disease 737 661 368 506 17.1 5.1 (5) 8.3 (5) 4.0 (8) 13.0 (2) 12.8 (2) 8.0 (5)
2 Cancers* 592 517 287 393 13.7 2.0 (12) 1.6 (10) 8.4 (3) 4.4 (10) 10.6 (4) 12.9 (1)
3 Other noncommunicable diseases 376 273 314 365 8.7 6.1 (4) 0.2 (16) 6.1 (5) 6.6 (6) 17.2 (1) 7.5 (6)
4 Unspecified infections 363 265 242 278 8.4 1.8 (13) 0.7 (15) 1.3 (14) 8.5 (4) 12.4 (3) 9.0 (4)
5 Falls, bites, and other injuries* 328 288 811 401 7.6 50.4 (1) 32.7 (1) 9.3 (2) 4.6 (9) 10.1 (6) 5.8 (9)
6 Tuberculosis 303 252 211 283 7.0 3.9 (7) 1.9 (8) 2.3 (10) 0.2 (16) 10.1 (5) 10.9 (3)
7 Chronic respiratory diseases 296 231 175 235 6.9 1.0 (15) 0.9 (14) 8.1 (4) 3.8 (11) 4.3 (9) 6.2 (8)
8 Road and transport injuries* 274 246 491 288 6.4 6.6 (2) 14.9 (2) 5.6 (6) 27.8 (1) 7.0 (7) 6.4 (7)
9 Stroke 232 196 160 197 5.4 2.2 (11) 3.9 (7) 5.2 (7) 4.8 (8) 0.7 (15) 5.5 (10)
10 Suicide* 208 185 200 109 4.8 3.9 (6) 11.7 (3) 1.8 (11) 5.5 (7) 1.9 (11) 3.1 (13)
11 Liver and alcohol related diseases 137 105 63 67 3.2 0.9 (16) 1.5 (11) 0.5 (16) 2.8 (12) 1.6 (12) 1.4 (14)
12 Other cardiovascular diseases 108 64 165 166 2.5 3.1 (8) 1.2 (12) 1.6 (12) 8.5 (3) 3.7 (10) 4.8 (11)
13 Acute respiratory infections 100 72 127 114 2.3 6.1 (3) 1.1 (13) 0.5 (17) 0.5 (14) 4.8 (8) 4.7 (12)
14 Diarrheal diseases 96 68 139 64 2.2 2.8 (10) 6.3 (6) 1.4 (13) 7.9 (5) 0.4 (17) 0.5 (17)
15 Ill-defined 69 59 366 194 1.6 0.0 (18) 0.0 (18) 39.7 (1) 0.0 (18) 0.0 (18) 11.3 (2)
16 Diabetes mellitus 63 49 64 35 1.5 1.3 (14) 1.7 (9) 3.6 (9) 0.3 (15) 0.9 (13) 1.1 (15)
17 Maternal conditions 25 21 121 29 0.6 3.0 (9) 11.4 (4) 0.8 (15) 0.6 (13) 0.6 (16) 0.4 (18)
18 Nutritional deficiencies 4 3 10 4 0.1 0.0 (17) 0.0 (17) 0.0 (18) 0.0 (17) 0.8 (14) 0.6 (16)
  Concordance       50 44 57 66 77 80
  1. *More obvious diagnoses. The order of injuries in this category, from highest to lowest number of deaths, is falls, other injuries, and bites
  2. Percentage of agreement between both physicians at the initial stage of ICD coding, where both physicians assigned the same cause of death for the deceased record. The overall physician initial agreement for adult was 83%; while 18% required a third physician to arbitrate (adjudication)