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Table 2 Sensitivity analyses of women-to-men ratio of relative risks for the outcomes associated with diabetes

From: Sex differences in the association between diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 5,162,654 participants

  Individuals N RRR Lower Upper P value Test for heterogeneity P value for interaction
I2 (%) χ 2 P value  
All-cause mortality 3,887,585 28         
 Age (years)           0.97
  < 60 2,517,958 17 1.10 1.01 1.21 0.03 64.60 45.24 < 0.001  
  ≥ 60 268,044 7 1.10 1.04 1.18 < 0.001 0.00 3.00 0.81  
  Others 1,101,583 4 1.19 0.91 1.57 0.21 84.30 19.05 < 0.001  
 Location           0.63
  Asia 1944.650 8 1.12 1.03 1.21 0.05 56.00 15.89 0.03  
  Western Europe 347,906 8 1.18 0.93 1.50 0.18 76.40 29.69 < 0.001  
  North America 1,572,948 8 1.10 1.08 1.12 < 0.001 0.00 4.33 0.74  
  Others 22,081 4 0.96 0.73 1.26 0.77 32.80 4.47 0.22  
 Follow-up years           0.64
  < 10 908,252 9 1.12 1.02 1.22 0.02 38.00 12.91 0.12  
  ≥ 10 2,979,333 19 1.13 1.06 1.21 < 0.001 66.2 53.32 < 0.001  
 Publication years           0.55
  ≤ 2000 95,532 9 1.1 0.9 1.4 0.5 64.50 22.51 < 0.001  
  2001–2009 1,381,865 5 1.3 1.0 1.6 < 0.001 81.50 21.60 < 0.001  
  ≥ 2010 2,410,188 14 1.1 1.0 1.2 < 0.001 39.8 21.59 0.06  
 Method of diabetes ascertainment           0.24
  KDM 2,486,016 18 1.17 1.07 1.26 < 0.001 74.2 65.97 < 0.001  
  NDM 590,506 6 1.05 0.90 1.21 0.20 32.10 7.36 0.6  
  KDM, NDM 1,363,765 9 1.05 0.97 1.15 0.3 16.40 9.56 < 0.001  
  Treated diabetes NA          
Cancer mortality 4,482,501 14         
 Age (years)           0.92
  < 60 3,361,850 12 1.01 0.95 1.07 0.75 0.00 10.69 0.47  
  ≥ 60 66,820 1 1.02 0.88 1.18 0.81 NA 0.00 NA  
  Others 52,655 1 1.04 0.99 1.09 0.17 NA 0.72 NA  
 Location           0.56
  Asia 2,795,136 8 1.01 0.96 1.08 0.65 0.00 5.33 0.62  
  Western Europe 276,141 3 0.94 0.58 1.51 0.80 53.50 4.30 0.12  
  North America 1,411,224 3 1.04 0.99 1.09 0.15 0.00 0.03 0.98  
  Others NA          
 Follow-up years           0.47
  < 10 881,061 3 1.08 0.94 1.23 0.29 0.00 1.45 0.49  
  ≥ 10 3,601,440 11 1.02 0.98 1.06 0.32 0.00 9.18 0.52  
 Publication years           
  ≤ 2000 5131 1 1.11 0.31 3.94 0.87 NA 0.00 NA 0.73
  2001–2009 1,327,437 2 1.05 0.91 1.20 0.50 5.10 1.05 0.31  
  ≥ 2010 3,149,933 11 1.02 0.98 1.06 0.30 0.00 9.99 0.44  
 Method of diabetes ascertainment           0.72
  KDM 2,094,903 9 1.03 0.90 1.19 0.65 77.90 36.21 < 0.001  
  NDM 557,524 2 1.07 0.96 1.18 0.22 0.00 0.04 0.84  
  KDM, NDM 2,369,318 4 1.03 0.99 1.08 0.16 0.00 1.16 0.764  
 Treated diabetes 18,280 1 0.99 0.56 1.74 0.96 NA 0 NA  
CVD mortality 2,067,486 23         
 Age (years)           0.91
  < 60 867,999 18 1.26 1.01 1.56 0.04 72.20 61.20 < 0.001  
  ≥ 60 106,601 3 1.12 0.98 1.29 0.10 5.70 2.12 0.35  
  Others 1,092,886 2 1.53 0.77 3.04 0.23 96.60 29.05 < 0.001  
 Location           0.64
  Asia 159,835 6 1.08 0.96 1.22 0.20 0.00 4.95 0.42  
  Western Europe 460,756 8 1.49 1.17 1.90 < 0.001 58.70 16.96 0.02  
  North America 1,415,878 6 1.33 1.03 1.72 0.03 88.20 42.22 < 0.001  
  Others 31,017 3 1.12 0.75 1.67 0.57 0.00 0.53 0.77  
 Follow-up years           0.38
  < 10 433,100 6 1.08 0.96 1.22 0.19 0.00 4.13 0.53  
  ≥ 10 1,634,386 17 1.35 1.13 1.62 < 0.001 83.00 93.96 < 0.001  
 Publication years           0.13
  ≤ 2000 54,288 4 1.36 0.75 2.47 0.31 79.10 14.33 < 0.001  
  2001–2009 142,444 6 1.63 1.04 2.57 0.03 83.50 30.31 < 0.001  
  ≥ 2010 1,870,754 13 1.09 1.06 1.12 < 0.001 0.00 4.62 0.97  
 Method of diabetes ascertainment           0.53
  KDM 1,876,261 11 1.20 1.02 1.42 0.03 85.10 66.94 < 0.001  
  NDM 42,944 3 1.40 0.84 2.35 0.20 74.50 7.85 0.02  
  KDM, NDM 152,371 11 1.31 0.95 1.82 0.10 73.10 37.23 < 0.001  
  Treated diabetes NA          
CHD mortality 2,050,929 23         
 Age (years)           0.88
  < 60 864,790 15 1.52 1.22 1.90 < 0.001 39.20 23.02 0.06  
  ≥ 60 89,838 4 1.68 1.22 2.30 < 0.001 0.00 2.69 0.44  
  Others 1,096,301 4 1.65 0.90 3.04 0.11 89.70 29.18 < 0.001  
 Location           0.88
  Asia 692,384 5 1.53 0.99 2.38 0.06 61.10 10.29 0.04  
  Western Europe 242,624 8 1.86 1.42 2.45 < 0.001 41.60 11.98 0.10  
  North America 1,113,375 9 1.17 1.13 1.22 < 0.001 0.00 7.26 0.51  
  Others 2546 1 3.11 0.79 12.23 0.11 NA 0.00 NA  
 Follow-up years           0.17
  < 10 606,561 6 1.23 0.85 1.79 0.23 27.20 6.87 0.27  
  ≥ 10 1,371,125 14 1.75 1.33 2.31 0.00 78.50 60.43 < 0.001  
  Others 73,243 3 1.38 0.95 2.02 0.10 0.00 0.86 0.65  
 Publication years           0.20
  ≤ 2000 111,122 10 1.66 1.21 2.27 0.00 41.90 15.49 0.08  
  2001–2009 118,915 6 1.84 1.25 2.71 0.00 32.80 7.44 0.19  
  ≥ 2010 1,820,892 7 1.30 1.12 1.52 0.00 41.00 10.17 0.12  
 Method of diabetes ascertainment           0.85
  KDM 1,457,769 14 1.52 1.20 1.92 0.00 78.10 59.23 < 0.001  
  NDM 119,825 4 1.90 0.98 3.70 0.06 70.70 10.26 0.02  
  KDM, NDM 543,435 7 1.34 1.14 1.57 0.00 0.00 5.42 0.49  
  Treated diabetes NA          
Stroke mortality 2,292,387 15         
 Age (years)           0.71
  < 60 1,078,421 10 1.12 0.98 1.28 0.11 0.00 7.36 0.60  
  ≥ 60 105,674 2 1.06 0.85 1.33 0.61 0.00 0.03 0.86  
  Others 1,108,292 3 1.07 0.99 1.15 0.08 0.00 1.67 0.43  
 Location           0.42
  Asia 764,335 7 1.11 0.97 1.26 0.12 0.00 5.04 0.54  
  Western Europe 132,562 5 1.36 0.97 1.90 0.07 0.00 1.60 0.81  
  North America 1,392,944 2 1.06 0.98 1.13 0.13 0.00 0.08 0.78  
  Others 2546 1 0.46 0.03 7.76 0.59 NA 0.00 NA  
 Follow-up years           0.58
  < 10 903,575 4 1.12 0.96 1.30 0.14 0.00 2.62 0.45  
  ≥ 10 1,388,812 11 1.07 1.00 1.14 0.06 0.00 6.48 0.77  
  Others NA          
 Publication years           0.25
  ≤ 2000 67,444 5 1.39 0.90 2.14 0.14 0.00 2.67 0.62  
  2001–2009 101,874 3 1.09 0.63 1.91 0.75 23.90 2.63 0.27  
  ≥ 2010 2,123,069 7 1.07 1.00 1.14 0.04 0.00 2.66 0.85  
 Method of diabetes ascertainment           0.27
  KDM 1,720,989 10 1.06 1.00 1.13 0.07 0.00 8.36 0.50  
  NDM 61,368 2 1.37 0.70 2.66 0.36 24.80 1.33 0.25  
  KDM, NDM 532,544 4 1.18 0.98 1.42 0.09 0.40 3.01 0.39  
  Treated diabetes NA          
  1. Abbreviations: N number of studies, NA not available, CVD cardiovascular disease, CHD coronary heart disease
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