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Table 3 Main characteristics of the patients with non-monogenic diabetes, class 3 variants, and class 4–5 variants

From: Next-generation sequencing identifies monogenic diabetes in 16% of patients with late adolescence/adult-onset diabetes selected on a clinical basis: a cross-sectional analysis

  Non-monogenica Class 3 variants Class 4–5 variants p class 3 vs. non-monogenic p class 3 vs. class 4–5
N 1241 59 254
N inclusion criteria: 2/3 486/755 20/39 56/198 0.4949 0.0643
Sex: female/men, n (%) 619/622 (50%) 34/25 (58%) 168/86 (66%) 0.2867 0.2295
EuroCaucasian: yes/no 600/499 (55%) 28/26 (52%) 192/37 (84%) 0.7799 < 10−4
N affected generations ≥ 3, yes/no 581/631 (48%) 34/25 (58%) 144/105 (58%) 0.1818 1.0000
Age at diagnosis (years) 31 [25–39] (1239) 31 [26–37.5] (59) 24 [18–30] (254) 0.8811 < 10−4
BMI at diagnosis, kg/2 (n) 24.2 [21.6–27.7] (1107) 23.7 [21.7–27.3] (51) 21.8 [20.1–24.2] (221) 0.8219 0.0007
BMI: normal/increased, n (%) 642/475 (57%) 29/23 (56%) 180/43 (81%) 0.8861 0.0005
Symptoms at diagnosis: yes/no 461/702 (40%) 15/40 (27%) 37/204 (15%) 0.0677 0.0484
HbA1c at diagnosis, % (n) 9.6 [7–12] (588) 8.2 [6.8–11.6] (35) 6.7 [6.3–8.7] (157) 0.4888 0.0014
HbA1c at diagnosis, mmol/mol (n) 81 [53–108] 66 [51–103] 50 [45–72] 0.4888 0.0014
Insulin therapy: yes/no 339/768 (31%) 14/37 (27%) 38/189 (17%) 0.7560 0.1098
Arterial hypertension: yes/no 214/538 (28%) 8/32 (20%) 23/133 (15%) 0.2826 0.4667
Dyslipidemia: yes/no 235/461 (34%) 12/26 (32%) 23/116 (17%) 0.8613 0.0635
  1. Values are actual numbers with percentages into parentheses, or median with interquartile range into brackets and numbers of values into parentheses
  2. BMI body mass index
  3. aNon-monogenic, no genetic etiology detected by targeted NGS on 7 genes