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Table 3 Results of sequential multiple logistic regression models for the association of neonatal death within 0–2 days of birth with select risk factors in the Indian state of Bihar

From: Distinct mortality patterns at 0–2 days versus the remaining neonatal period: results from population-based assessment in the Indian state of Bihar

Risk factors Adjusted odds ratio for neonatal death in 0–2 days (95% confidence interval)
Model 1* Model 2* Model 3* Model 4* Model 5*
Rural place of residence 1.45 (0.85–2.47) 1.40 (0.82–2.39) 1.50 (0.85–2.65) 1.56 (0.89–2.74) 1.43 (0.79–2.56)
Boy baby 1.29 (1.01–1.63) 1.27 (1.00–1.62) 1.37 (1.07–1.77) 1.35 (1.05–1.73) 1.32 (1.02–1.71)
Wealth index quartile
 I 1.41 (0.98–2.05) 1.50 (1.02–2.18) 2.02 (1.35–3.02) 1.86 (1.25–2.77) 2.01 (1.31–3.07)
 II 1.85 (1.30–2.64) 1.89 (1.32–2.71) 2.30 (1.56–3.37) 2.23 (1.53–3.25) 2.41 (1.61–3.60)
 III 1.28 (0.88–1.87) 1.31 (0.90–1.93) 1.45 (0.97–2.16) 1.33 (0.89–1.99) 1.46 (0.96–2.22)
 IV 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Maternal age
 15–19 years   1.00 1.00 1.00  
 20–24 years   0.81 (0.50–1.33) 0.81 (0.49–1.35) 0.94 (0.56–1.60)  
 25–29 years   0.64 (0.37–1.11) 0.69 (0.39–1.21) 0.79 (0.45–1.41)  
 ≥ 30 years   0.81 (0.45–1.46) 0.76 (0.41–1.40) 0.81 (0.43–1.53)  
Any tobacco use ever   1.75 (0.99–3.10) 1.73 (0.95–3.14) 1.79 (0.99–3.26) 1.64 (0.90–2.99)
Primiparity   1.37 (1.01–1.86) 1.41 (1.02–1.96) 1.43 (1.03–1.98) 1.44 (1.07–1.93)
Maternal history of high blood pressure irrespective of pregnancy   1.28 (0.57–2.90)    
No maternal antenatal care visit during pregnancy    1.00 (0.71–1.39)   
Mother did not receive 2 tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy    1.52 (1.13–2.05) 1.49 (1.11–2.00) 1.54 (1.14–2.09)
Mother did not consume iron folic acid tablets during pregnancy    0.99 (0.76–1.28)   
Pregnancy with multiple foetuses    2.92 (1.72–4.95) 3.33 (1.96–5.64) 2.31 (1.30–4.11)
Maternal hypertension in the last trimester of pregnancy    2.00 (1.06–3.77) 1.82 (0.99–3.36) 1.34 (0.68–2.66)
Mother had malaria in the last trimester of pregnancy    0.66 (0.23–1.90)   
Diagnosed with syphilis during pregnancy
 No    1.00   
 Yes    1.43 (0.19–10.66)   
 Do not know    1.06 (0.63–1.80)   
Mother had a fever in the last 3 months of pregnancy    0.57 (0.39–0.85) 0.56 (0.38–0.83) 0.49 (0.32–0.74)
Mother had convulsions in the last 3 months of pregnancy    0.94 (0.64–1.38)   
Mother is informed the baby was not growing adequately inside the womb    1.44 (0.81–2.54)   
Gestation period
 ≤ 8 months    16.74 (12.26–22.86) 17.03 (12.50–23.20) 16.52 (11.93–22.88)
 > 8 months    1.00 1.00 1.00
Deferred delivery     0.84 (0.25–2.83)  
Spontaneous labour     1.30 (0.99–1.71) 1.38 (1.03–1.84)
Foul-smelling liquor     1.46 (0.88–2.42) 1.12 (0.64–1.96)
Labour for more than 12 h     1.07 (0.76–1.51)  
Place of delivery
 Public facility      1.00
 Private facility      1.88 (1.31–2.70)
 Home      1.39 (1.02–1.90)
Vaginal delivery      1.26 (0.79–2.00)
Push/pull done during delivery by the health provider      2.88 (1.93–4.32)
Entangled cord around the baby’s neck
 No      1.00
 Yes      2.02 (1.23–3.34)
 Do not know      0.60 (0.34–1.07)
Breech presentation of the baby      2.70 (1.72–4.25)
Antiseptic cord care
 Yes      1.00
 No      2.40 (1.60–3.59)
 Do not know      3.85 (2.44–6.10)
  1. *Model adjusted for sex of the baby and place of residence
  2. P ≥ 0.2 and hence excluded from the sequential model
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