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Table 1 Effect of IgG levels to Plasmodium falciparum antigens on malaria protection

From: RTS,S/AS01E immunization increases antibody responses to vaccine-unrelated Plasmodium falciparum antigens associated with protection against clinical malaria in African children: a case-control study

Antibody Month 3 IgG levels Age (5–17 months) Site (Manhiça) Baseline IgG levels WAZ Vaccine (RTS,S)
Antigen OR p OR p OR p OR p OR p OR p
Group i antigens
 MSP142 3D7 1.11 (0.7; 1.74) 0.65    0.18 (0.08; 0.39) < 0.001 1.47 (0.96; 2.28) 0.08     
 MSP142 FVO 0.87 (0.57; 1.29) 0.48 0.5 (0.23; 1.04) 0.07 0.13 (0.05; 0.29) < 0.001 1.47 (1.02;2.15) 0.04 0.78 (0.56; 1.08) 0.13 0.59 (0.28; 1.2) 0.15
 EXP1 0.8 (0.47; 1.33) 0.39    0.19 (0.08; 0.43) < 0.001 1.94 (1.24; 3.12) 0.005 0.75 (0.54; 1.05) 0.1 0.53 (0.25; 1.1) 0.09
 AMA1 FVO 1.6 (1.15; 2.27) 0.006    0.13 (0.06; 0.25) < 0.001       
 AMA1 3D7 0.98 (0.51; 1.83) 0.94    0.14 (0.07; 0.28) < 0.001 1.54 (0.93; 2.67) 0.1 0.78 (0.56; 1.08) 0.14 0.56 (0.27; 1.15) 0.12
Group ii antigens
 pTRAMP 1.01 (0.51; 2.03) 0.98 0.42 (0.2; 0.85) 0.02 0.12 (0.06; 0.25) < 0.001 2.18 (1.16; 4.21) 0.02    0.54 (0.26; 1.11) 0.1
 EBA175 R2(F2) 0.96 (0.56; 1.64) 0.89 0.49 (0.24; 0.98) 0.047 0.09 (0.04; 0.18) < 0.001       
 PfRH1 1.58 (0.79; 3.19) 0.2 0.4 (0.18; 0.83) 0.02 0.11 (0.05; 0.23) < 0.001    0.79 (0.56; 1.09) 0.15   
 MSP3 3D7 1.32 (0.77; 2.3) 0.32 0.51 (0.25; 1.02) 0.06 0.1 (0.05; 0.2) < 0.001       
 Var2csa DBL3–4 1.03 (0.5;2.1) 0.94 0.5 (0.21; 1.13) 0.1 0.09 (0.04; 0.2) < 0.001       
 p41 1.41 (0.64; 3.16) 0.4 0.46 (0.22; 0.94) 0.04 0.1 (0.05; 0.19) < 0.001       
 MSP2 FL Dd2 0.89 (0.47; 1.61) 0.71    0.25 (0.11; 0.57) 0.001 2.15 (1.31; 3.67) 0.003 0.76 (0.54; 1.06) 0.11 0.52 (0.25; 1.07) 0.08
 MSP2 FL CH150 1.02 (0.57; 1.83) 0.96    0.25 (0.11; 0.58) 0.001 2.05 (1.31; 3.29) 0.002 0.76 (0.54; 1.06) 0.11 0.44 (0.2; 0.92) 0.03
 MSP1 Bl2 hybrid 1.11 (0.68; 1.83) 0.67 0.5 (0.24; 0.98) 0.049 0.09 (0.04; 0.19) < 0.001       
 MSP3 3C 1.22 (0.74; 2.01) 0.43 0.41 (0.19; 0.84) 0.02 0.1 (0.05; 0.22) < 0.001 1.67 (0.94; 2.99) 0.08    0.55 (0.27; 1.14) 0.11
 PfRH2 b240 1.03 (0.49; 2.18) 0.94 0.49 (0.24; 0.98) 0.049 0.09 (0.04; 0.19) < 0.001       
 LSA1 0.88 (0.51; 1.49) 0.64 0.5 (0.24; 0.99) 0.051 0.09 (0.04; 0.18) < 0.001       
 MSP1 Bl2 PA17 0.96 (0.53; 1.7) 0.89 0.5 (0.24; 0.98) 0.048 0.09 (0.04; 0.18) < 0.001       
 Var2csa DBL1–2 0.9 (0.37; 2.27) 0.82    0.14 (0.07; 0.29) < 0.001 2.06 (1.01; 4.26) 0.047    0.57 (0.28; 1.16) 0.12
 CyRPA 1.81 (0.76; 4.43) 0.18 0.4 (0.18; 0.82) 0.02 0.1 (0.04; 0.19) < 0.001    0.79 (0.57; 1.09) 0.15 0.57 (0.28; 1.17) 0.13
 CelTOS 1.55 (0.77; 3.13) 0.22 0.41 (0.19; 0.85) 0.02 0.1 (0.05; 0.2) < 0.001    0.79 (0.57; 1.09) 0.16 0.58 (0.28; 1.18) 0.13
 RH4.9 0.62 (0.3; 1.26) 0.19 0.53 (0.26; 1.05) 0.07 0.08 (0.04; 0.16) < 0.001       
Group iii antigens
 DBL-α 1.35 (0.62; 2.91) 0.44 0.45 (0.21;0.92) 0.03 0.12 (0.05; 0.24) < 0.001 1.9 (0.88; 4.22) 0.11     
 RH5 1.93 (0.98; 4.01) 0.07 0.38 (0.17; 0.79) 0.01 0.11 (0.05; 0.21) < 0.001    0.78 (0.56; 1.08) 0.15 0.51 (0.24; 1.07) 0.08
 SSP2 (TRAP) 0.52 (0.26; 0.98) 0.05    0.11 (0.05; 0.23) < 0.001 2.29 (1.14; 4.8) 0.02     
 MSP1 Bl2 Mad20 0.61 (0.13; 2.7) 0.52 0.55 (0.26; 1.13) 0.11 0.14 (0.07; 0.3) < 0.001 5.91 (1.5; 29.52) 0.02 0.79 (0.57; 1.09) 0.15   
 MSP6 1.19 (0.56; 2.61) 0.65 0.47 (0.21; 0.98) 0.05 0.14 (0.06; 0.3) < 0.001 1.63 (0.89; 3.01) 0.12 0.78 (0.56; 1.07) 0.12 0.51 (0.23; 1.09) 0.08
 RH2 (2030) 1.37 (0.72; 2.65) 0.35 0.51 (0.25; 1.01) 0.059 0.1 (0.04; 0.19) < 0.001      0.55 (0.26; 1.16) 0.12
 EBA175 R3–5 1.17 (0.71; 1.96) 0.54 0.45 (0.21; 0.91) 0.03 0.1 (0.05; 0.2) < 0.001    0.79 (0.57; 1.09) 0.16 0.55 (0.25; 1.18) 0.13
 MSP5 0.78 (0.48; 1.25) 0.3 0.49 (0.23; 1) 0.056 0.12 (0.06; 0.24) < 0.001 2.06 (1.26; 3.45) 0.005     
 EBA140 R3–5 1.21 (0.69; 2.14) 0.5 0.47 (0.22; 0.94) 0.04 0.09 (0.04; 0.18) < 0.001      0.54 (0.24; 1.19) 0.13
 MSP1 Bl2 RO33 0.53 (0.3; 0.93) 0.03 0.53 (0.25; 1.07) 0.08 0.1 (0.04; 0.21) < 0.001 1.64 (0.93; 3.03) 0.1     
 MSP1 Bl2 Well 0.55 (0.3; 0.99) 0.05 0.51 (0.23; 1.07) 0.08 0.1 (0.05; 0.2) < 0.001 2.06 (0.95; 4.72) 0.08     
 MSP1 Bl2 3D7 0.63 (0.39; 1) 0.054 0.47 (0.22; 0.96) 0.042 0.08 (0.04; 0.17) < 0.001    0.79 (0.56; 1.09) 0.16   
 RH4.2 0.85 (0.52; 1.38) 0.51 0.53 (0.25; 1.06) 0.08 0.09 (0.04; 0.18) < 0.001       
  1. Each line shows the multivariable logistic regression model’s results with IgG levels to each antigen (expressed as log10 of the median fluorescence intensity measured by quantitative suspension array technology) at month 3 as predictors and clinical malaria as outcome, adjusted by covariates. Columns show the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals and p values (significant in italics) of the month 3 IgG levels and the covariables retained in the models for some antigens (in parenthesis the category that is compared to the reference). Variables that were not significant or did not improve the multivariable model are not shown. WAZ weight-for-age Z-score, FL full length, Bl2 block 2