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Table 2 Common signs and symptoms at presentation. The table shows the proportion of CMGs that each specific signs or symptoms was described in

From: A systematic review of clinical guidelines on the management of acute, community-acquired CNS infections

Bacterial CNS infections
 Neonates/infants (≤ 1 year) (n = 8 CMGs)  Children (< 16–18 years) (n = 10 CMGs)  Adults and unspecified age (n = 10 CMGs)
  Signs and symptoms n (%)   Signs and symptoms n (%)   Signs and symptoms n (%)
   Irritability 8 (100)    Neck stiffness 10 (100)    Fever 10 (100)
   Fever 8 (100)    Headache 9 (90)    Headache 10 (100)
   Poor appetite/feeding 8 (100)    Fever 9 (90)    Neck stiffness 10 (100)
   Bulging fontanelle 6 (75)    Petechial rash/purpura 8 (80)    AMS/ALOC 6 (60)
   Petechial rash/purpura 6 (75)    AMS 7 (70)    Petechial rash/purpura 5 (50)
   Lethargy 6 (75)    Nausea/vomiting 6 (60)    Focal neurological signs 5 (50)
   Nausea/vomiting 5 (63)    Photophobia 6 (60)    Seizures 4 (40)
   Neck stiffness 5 (63)    Kernig’s sign 5 (50)    Photophobia 3 (30)
   Seizures 4 (50)    Brudzinski’s sign 5 (50)    Nausea/vomiting 3 (30)
   Apnoea or respiratory distress 4 (50)    Cold hands/feet 4 (40)  
   Hypothermia 4 (50)    Abnormal skin colour 4 (40)
   Confusion 3 (38)    Focal neurological signs 3 (30)
   Photophobia 3 (38)    Poor appetite 3 (30)
   Abnormal skin colour 3 (38)    Leg pain 2 (20)
   Kernig’s sign 2 (25)    Lethargy 2 (20)
   Brudzinski’s sign 2 (25)    Irritability 2 (20)
Viral CNS infections
 Children (n = 4 CMGs)  Adults and unspecified age (n = 10 CMGs)
  Signs and symptoms n (%)   Signs and symptoms n (%)
   Seizures 4 (100)    Seizures 10 (100)
   Focal neurological signs 4 (100)    Focal neurological signs 10 (100)
   Fever 4 (100)    Fever 9 (90)
   ALOC 4 (100)    ALOC 9 (90)
   Changes in personality or behaviour 4 (100)    Changes in personality or behaviour 8 (80)
   Headache 1 (25)    Rash 5 (50)
     Headache 4 (40)
   Vomiting 1 (10)
   Memory changes 1 (10)
  1. Abbreviations: ALOC altered level of consciousness, AMS altered mental status