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Table 3 Association between the history of infections and RA

From: Antibiotic use and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based case-control study

Variables Controls Cases OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR* (95% CI)
N % N %
Infection ever before diagnosis
 Lower respiratory tract 31,400 34.9 10,050 44.3 1.56 (1.51–1.61) 1.37 (1.32–1.41)
 Upper respiratory tract 41,786 46.4 12,258 54.1 1.42 (1.38–1.47) 1.26 (1.22–1.31)
 Gastrointestinal 8352 9.3 2699 11.9 1.33 (1.27–1.40) 1.19 (1.13–1.25)
 Urinary tract 11,037 12.3 3179 14 1.19 (1.13–1.24) 1.07 (1.02–1.12)
Infection episodes
 0 34,899 38.8 6835 30.1 Reference Reference
 1 18,503 20.6 4366 19.3 1.26 (1.21–1.32) 1.22 (1.72–1.28)
 2 11,041 12.3 2990 13.2 1.48 (1.41–1.56) 1.42 (1.35–1.49)
 3 7091 7.9 2066 9.1 1.63 (1.54–1.73) 1.54 (1.46–1.64)
 ≥ 4 18,479 20.5 6420 28.3 2.02 (1.93–2.11) 1.86 (1.78–1.94)
No. of treated URT
 0 8466 20.3 2078 17.0 Reference Reference
 1 16,536 39.6 4510 36.8 1.11 (1.05–1.18) 1.10 (1.04–1.17)
 2 7052 16.9 2236 18.2 1.29 (1.21–1.38) 1.27 (1.19–1.50)
 3 3554 8.5 1233 10.1 1.41 (1.30–1.53) 1.39 (1.28–1.51)
 ≥ 4 6178 14.8 2201 18.0 1.45 (1.36–1.55) 1.42 (1.32–1.52)
No. of untreated URT
 0 21,981 52.6 6510 53.1 Reference Reference
 1 13,893 33.2 3908 31.9 0.95 (0.91–0.99) 0.95 (0.91–1.00)
 2 3714 8.9 1132 9.2 1.03 (0.96–1.11) 1.02 (0.95–1.07)
 3 1274 3 385 3.1 1.02 (0.91–1.15) 1.00 (0.89–1.13)
 ≥ 4 924 2.2 323 2.6 1.18 (1.04–1.34) 1.14 (1.00–1.29)
  1. *Adjusted for age, BMI, smoking status, Charlson comorbidity index, alcohol, and presence/absence of LRT, URT, GII, and UTI