Skip to main content

Table 2 Outcomes at 3 months (treatment end) and 18 months

From: Clinical and cost-effectiveness of contingency management for cannabis use in early psychosis: the CIRCLE randomised clinical trial

   Control CM
n/N, mean, or median % or (IQR) n/N, mean, or median % or (IQR)
Admitted to an acute mental health service 18 months 85/259 33 90/272 33
Number of admissions 18 months 0 (0, 1) 0 (0, 1)
Any work or study 3 months 58/183 32 58/189 31
  18 months 45/135 33 42/145 29
Cannabis-positive urine 3 months 122/170 72 128/184 70
18 months 76/124 61 77/136 57
Number of days using cannabis* (median) 3 months 30 (3, 84) 26 (1, 67)
18 months 26 (1, 142) 26 (0, 118)
PANSS positive symptoms (median) 3 months 11 (8, 16) 10 (8, 14)
18 months 10 (8, 15) 11 (8, 13)
PANSS negative symptoms (median) 3 months 14 (10, 18) 12 (9, 17)
18 months 12 (8, 17) 12 (9, 17)
Number of days of using illicit substances other than cannabis (median) 3 months 0 (0, 1) 0 (0, 1)
18 months 0 (0, 2) 0 (0, 1)
Number of days using alcohol (median) 3 months 4 (0, 12) 4 (0, 15)
18 months 6 (0, 24) 6 (0, 24)
EQ-5D-3L utility score (mean) 3 months 0.7729   0.8175  
18 months 0.8032   0.8336  
SF-6D utility score (mean) 3 months 0.7018   0.7114  
18 months 0.7110   0.7205  
Number of psychoeducation sessions attended (median)   4 (0, 6) 6 (1, 6)
Number of contingency management sessions attended (median)     9 (3, 12)
Number who attended 4 or more PE sessions (used in the post hoc analysis)   137/263 52 168/273 62
  1. *At 3 months, this was for the previous 12 weeks/84 days. At 18 months, this was for the previous 168 days