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Table 3 Age-standardised rates of stroke mortality and burden attributable to modifiable risk factors

From: Socioeconomic status and stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, and worldwide burden: an ecological analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

  All-type stroke Ischaemic stroke Intracerebral haemorrhage Subarachnoid haemorrhage
Mean (95% uncertainty interval) Mean (95% uncertainty interval) Mean (95% uncertainty interval) Mean (95% uncertainty interval)
1990 2017 Percent change 1990 2017 Percent change 1990 2017 Percent change 1990 2017 Percent change
Deaths per 100,000 people
 Global
  All risk factors 102.7 (97.5 to 108.4) 67.9 (64.2 to 71.3) -34 (-36 to -32) 46.7 (42.4 to 50.9) 30.2 (27.4 to 33) -35 (-37 to -33) 47.2 (43.9 to 51.6) 33 (30.9 to 35.1) -30 (-34 to -27) 8.9 (7 to 10.3) 4.7 (4.3 to 5.3) -47 (-52 to -34)
  Air pollution 14.5 (12 to 17) 8.6 (7 to 10.3) -41 (-43 to -38) 5.6 (4.5 to 6.7) 3.4 (2.7 to 4.2) -38 (-41 to -35) 7.4 (6.1 to 8.8) 4.5 (3.6 to 5.4) -39 (-44 to -36) 1.5 (1.1 to 1.9) 0.7 (0.5 to 0.8) -56 (-61 to -43)
  Other environmental risks 6.1 (4 to 8.5) 4.7 (3.2 to 6.5) -22 (-27 to -16) 2 (1.2 to 3.1) 1.8 (1.1 to 2.6) -11 (-19 to 1) 3.4 (2.2 to 4.9) 2.6 (1.7 to 3.7) -23 (-30 to -16) 0.7 (0.4 to 1) 0.3 (0.2 to 0.5) -53 (-60 to -36)
  Tobacco 22.5 (21.1 to 24.1) 13.2 (12.3 to 14.1) -42 (-44 to -39) 8.7 (8 to 9.4) 5.1 (4.7 to 5.5) -41 (-44 to -39) 11.4 (10.5 to 12.6) 7 (6.5 to 7.5) -38 (-42 to -35) 2.4 (1.9 to 2.9) 1 (0.9 to 1.2) -57 (-62 to -46)
  Alcohol use 8.2 (5.2 to 11.2) 7.1 (5.1 to 9.1) -13 (-29 to 12) 0.9 (-0.8 to 2.9) 1.3 (0.3 to 2.3) 34 (-1079 to 841) 7.2 (5 to 9.4) 5.8 (4.2 to 7.4) -20 (-31 to -3) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High fasting plasma glucose 22 (13.9 to 36.2) 16.5 (10.9 to 25.6) -25 (-30 to -20) 11.1 (5.3 to 24.1) 7.9 (3.9 to 16.5) -29 (-34 to -23) 9.3 (5.7 to 14.5) 7.5 (4.6 to 11.4) -19 (-25 to -14) 1.6 (1 to 2.5) 1.1 (0.7 to 1.7) -31 (-38 to -16)
  High systolic blood pressure 64.4 (54.2 to 73.8) 43.4 (36.6 to 49.9) -33 (-35 to -31) 28 (21.6 to 34.6) 18.1 (13.9 to 22.3) -36 (-38 to -33) 30.5 (24.1 to 37) 22.1 (17.5 to 26.4) -28 (-32 to -24) 5.9 (4.4 to 7.2) 3.3 (2.6 to 3.9) -44 (-50 to -32)
  High body-mass index 13.7 (7 to 21.8) 13.2 (8 to 18.9) -4 (-15 to 16) 4.7 (2.3 to 7.8) 4.1 (2.3 to 6.3) -13 (-21 to -1) 7.3 (3.7 to 12.1) 7.6 (4.7 to 11.2) 5 (-10 to 28) 1.7 (0.9 to 2.7) 1.5 (1 to 2) -12 (-29 to 14)
  Dietary risks 58.7 (52.4 to 65) 37.1 (32.8 to 41.3) -37 (-39 to -35) 22.7 (18.8 to 26.5) 14.4 (12 to 16.8) -36 (-39 to -33) 29.8 (25.1 to 34.8) 19.7 (16.7 to 22.5) -34 (-38 to -30) 6.2 (4.6 to 7.4) 3 (2.4 to 3.5) -52 (-58 to -39)
  Low physical activity 6.3 (2.2 to 11.6) 4 (1.4 to 7.3) -37 (-40 to -34) 6.3 (2.2 to 11.6) 4 (1.4 to 7.3) -37 (-40 to -34) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  Impaired kidney function 9.2 (6.9 to 11.8) 6 (4.6 to 7.6) -35 (-38 to -31) 4.7 (3.3 to 6.3) 2.9 (2.1 to 3.8) -38 (-41 to -34) 4.5 (3.5 to 5.5) 3.1 (2.5 to 3.7) -31 (-35 to -27) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High LDL cholesterol 11.4 (4 to 23.6) 7 (2.6 to 14.5) -38 (-41 to -34) 11.4 (4 to 23.6) 7 (2.6 to 14.5) -38 (-41 to -34) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
 World Bank Low Income
  All risk factors 120.6 (109.6 to 131.4) 90.9 (82.8 to 98.3) -25 (-30 to -19) 45.7 (38.4 to 53.6) 35.7 (29.3 to 41.6) -22 (-28 to -16) 68.6 (60.3 to 77.1) 50.9 (45.6 to 56.6) -26 (-31 to -19) 6.3 (4.5 to 9) 4.3 (3.1 to 6.5) -32 (-41 to -20)
  Air pollution 24.2 (20.6 to 28.1) 16.2 (13.5 to 19.2) -33 (-38 to -27) 8.7 (7 to 10.5) 5.9 (4.7 to 7.3) -31 (-37 to -25) 14.2 (11.7 to 16.8) 9.4 (7.8 to 11.2) -33 (-39 to -27) 1.4 (0.9 to 2) 0.9 (0.6 to 1.3) -39 (-47 to -29)
  Other environmental risks 9.4 (6.2 to 12.9) 7.1 (4.7 to 9.8) -25 (-31 to -17) 3.1 (1.9 to 4.5) 2.6 (1.6 to 3.8) -16 (-23 to -7) 5.7 (3.6 to 8.2) 4.1 (2.6 to 5.8) -28 (-35 to -20) 0.6 (0.3 to 0.9) 0.4 (0.2 to 0.6) -34 (-43 to -22)
  Tobacco 15.4 (13.5 to 17.3) 10.7 (9.5 to 11.9) -30 (-36 to -24) 4.8 (4.1 to 5.8) 3.5 (2.9 to 4.2) -27 (-34 to -20) 9.5 (8.2 to 10.9) 6.5 (5.7 to 7.3) -31 (-37 to -24) 1.1 (0.8 to 1.6) 0.7 (0.5 to 1.1) -38 (-48 to -25)
  Alcohol use 7.1 (3.9 to 10.7) 4.1 (1.6 to 7) -42 (-63 to -27) 0 (-1.1 to 1.1) -0.4 (-1.4 to 0.5) 4097 (-1508 to 1024) 7.1 (4.3 to 10.2) 4.5 (2.2 to 6.9) -36 (-51 to -24) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High fasting plasma glucose 32.6 (20.8 to 50.7) 27.1 (17.1 to 41.8) -17 (-24 to -9) 13.3 (6 to 28.8) 11.4 (5.2 to 25) -14 (-22 to -5) 17.9 (9.9 to 28.9) 14.5 (8.3 to 22.9) -19 (-27 to -10) 1.5 (0.8 to 2.7) 1.2 (0.6 to 2.1) -22 (-33 to -8)
  High systolic blood pressure 73.5 (60.6 to 86) 59.1 (49.2 to 68.1) -20 (-25 to -14) 26.2 (19.7 to 33.7) 21.5 (16.1 to 27.5) -18 (-24 to -11) 43.3 (33.5 to 53.2) 34.6 (27.4 to 41.3) -20 (-26 to -13) 4.1 (2.8 to 6) 3 (2 to 4.6) -28 (-37 to -16)
  High body-mass index 11 (4.2 to 20.8) 12.9 (6.9 to 20.1) 17 (-5 to 67) 2.7 (1 to 5.2) 3.3 (1.7 to 5.5) 24 (0 to 76) 7.5 (2.9 to 14.2) 8.7 (4.6 to 13.8) 16 (-6 to 65) 0.9 (0.3 to 1.7) 0.9 (0.4 to 1.6) 6 (-17 to 59)
  Dietary risks 69 (59.2 to 79.2) 49.2 (42.2 to 56.6) -29 (-34 to -23) 22.9 (17.7 to 28.3) 17.2 (13.2 to 21.3) -25 (-31 to -19) 41.9 (33.8 to 50.7) 29.4 (23.9 to 35.4) -30 (-36 to -24) 4.2 (3 to 6.1) 2.7 (1.9 to 4) -36 (-45 to -26)
  Low physical activity 5.5 (1.8 to 10.5) 4.2 (1.5 to 8.1) -22 (-29 to -16) 5.5 (1.8 to 10.5) 4.2 (1.5 to 8.1) -22 (-29 to -16) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  Impaired kidney function 12.5 (9.4 to 15.6) 9.3 (7 to 11.8) -26 (-32 to -20) 5.2 (3.6 to 7) 4 (2.7 to 5.4) -24 (-31 to -18) 7.3 (5.6 to 9.1) 5.3 (4.2 to 6.6) -27 (-33 to -20) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High LDL cholesterol 8.4 (3.3 to 18.5) 7 (2.7 to 15.2) -16 (-23 to -9) 8.4 (3.3 to 18.5) 7 (2.7 to 15.2) -16 (-23 to -9) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
 World Bank Lower Middle Income
  All risk factors 113.6 (106.8 to 121.1) 87.7 (82.5 to 92.7) -23 (-26 to -20) 53.2 (46.9 to 60.3) 39.7 (35 to 44.9) -25 (-29 to -21) 52.9 (46.7 to 58.7) 42.2 (38.3 to 45.7) -20 (-25 to -15) 7.5 (6.2 to 9.7) 5.8 (5 to 6.9) -23 (-32 to -13)
  Air pollution 19.1 (16.1 to 22.2) 12.3 (10.1 to 14.7) -36 (-40 to -31) 8 (6.4 to 9.6) 5.1 (4 to 6.3) -36 (-41 to -31) 9.7 (7.8 to 11.4) 6.3 (5.1 to 7.5) -35 (-40 to -30) 1.5 (1.1 to 2) 1 (0.7 to 1.2) -36 (-43 to -27)
  Other environmental risks 7.7 (5.1 to 10.5) 6.7 (4.5 to 9.1) -13 (-18 to -6) 2.8 (1.7 to 4.2) 2.7 (1.7 to 4) -3 (-12 to 8) 4.2 (2.7 to 6) 3.5 (2.3 to 4.9) -17 (-24 to -10) 0.6 (0.4 to 1) 0.5 (0.3 to 0.7) -23 (-34 to -7)
  Tobacco 20.5 (18.7 to 22.5) 13.8 (12.6 to 15.1) -33 (-38 to -28) 8.2 (7.2 to 9.4) 5.3 (4.7 to 6.1) -35 (-40 to -30) 10.7 (9.3 to 12.1) 7.4 (6.6 to 8.2) -31 (-37 to -25) 1.6 (1.2 to 2.3) 1.1 (0.9 to 1.4) -34 (-44 to -19)
  Alcohol use 4.9 (2.6 to 7.3) 6.6 (4.9 to 8.5) 34 (2 to 101) 0.6 (-0.7 to 1.9) 1.5 (0.7 to 2.3) 159 (-2053 to 2162) 4.4 (2.9 to 5.9) 5.1 (3.7 to 6.7) 17 (-4 to 52) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High fasting plasma glucose 27.1 (16.8 to 45.8) 25.9 (16.9 to 40.7) -4 (-13 to 5) 13.6 (6.2 to 30.9) 12.3 (5.8 to 25.9) -9 (-18 to 2) 11.9 (6.8 to 19.2) 12 (7.2 to 18.3) 1 (-8 to 11) 1.6 (1 to 2.6) 1.6 (1 to 2.4) -1 (-15 to 14)
  High systolic blood pressure 71.4 (60.7 to 81.9) 57 (48.7 to 65.4) -20 (-24 to -17) 31.6 (24.4 to 40) 24.1 (18.7 to 30.7) -24 (-28 to -19) 34.8 (27 to 42.2) 28.9 (23 to 34.6) -17 (-23 to -11) 5.1 (3.9 to 6.7) 4.1 (3.2 to 5.1) -20 (-28 to -10)
  High body-mass index 11.1 (5.5 to 18.4) 14.7 (9 to 21) 33 (10 to 69) 3.9 (1.9 to 6.6) 4.3 (2.5 to 6.6) 11 (-3 to 34) 6.1 (2.9 to 10.5) 8.8 (5.3 to 12.7) 45 (17 to 92) 1.1 (0.5 to 1.9) 1.6 (1 to 2.3) 44 (15 to 95)
  Dietary risks 63.7 (56.1 to 71.8) 44.5 (38.7 to 50.2) -30 (-34 to -27) 26.2 (20.7 to 31.4) 17.5 (14.1 to 21.1) -33 (-37 to -29) 32.5 (26.5 to 38.5) 23.4 (19.2 to 27.7) -28 (-33 to -23) 5 (3.9 to 6.6) 3.5 (2.8 to 4.4) -30 (-37 to -21)
  Low physical activity 6.7 (2.2 to 12.6) 4.9 (1.7 to 9.1) -27 (-31 to -23) 6.7 (2.2 to 12.6) 4.9 (1.7 to 9.1) -27 (-31 to -23) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  Impaired kidney function 11.3 (8.6 to 14.3) 8.9 (6.8 to 11.2) -22 (-26 to -17) 5.8 (4.1 to 7.7) 4.3 (3 to 5.7) -25 (-30 to -20) 5.6 (4.4 to 6.9) 4.6 (3.7 to 5.6) -17 (-23 to -12) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High LDL cholesterol 11.1 (4 to 24.6) 8.2 (3.1 to 17.8) -26 (-30 to -21) 11.1 (4 to 24.6) 8.2 (3.1 to 17.8) -26 (-30 to -21) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
 World Bank Upper Middle Income
  All risk factors 133.9 (126.4 to 142.4) 84.8 (79.9 to 89.6) -37 (-39 to -34) 56.1 (51.3 to 61.7) 38.3 (35.1 to 41.7) -32 (-35 to -28) 64 (59 to 72.4) 41.3 (38.4 to 44.2) -35 (-42 to -31) 13.7 (8.8 to 16) 5.2 (4.5 to 5.8) -62 (-68 to -45)
  Air pollution 19.3 (15.9 to 23) 10.2 (8 to 12.3) -47 (-51 to -44) 6.9 (5.5 to 8.4) 4.2 (3.3 to 5.2) -39 (-44 to -34) 10 (8.2 to 12.2) 5.3 (4.2 to 6.3) -47 (-53 to -43) 2.4 (1.5 to 3) 0.7 (0.5 to 0.8) -72 (-77 to -58)
  Other environmental risks 8.7 (5.7 to 12) 6.3 (4.2 to 8.7) -27 (-33 to -20) 2.5 (1.5 to 3.8) 2.4 (1.5 to 3.5) -6 (-18 to 9) 4.9 (3.1 to 7.1) 3.5 (2.3 to 5.1) -28 (-38 to -19) 1.2 (0.6 to 1.8) 0.4 (0.2 to 0.6) -68 (-75 to -48)
  Tobacco 30.8 (28.5 to 33.5) 18.9 (17.6 to 20.3) -39 (-43 to -35) 10.9 (10 to 12.1) 7.5 (7 to 8.1) -31 (-36 to -25) 16.3 (14.7 to 18.5) 10.1 (9.4 to 10.8) -38 (-44 to -33) 3.6 (2.4 to 4.4) 1.3 (1.1 to 1.5) -65 (-72 to -49)
  Alcohol use 10.7 (6.7 to 14.8) 11.1 (7.5 to 14.5) 4 (-20 to 46) 0.9 (-1 to 2.9) 2.4 (0.9 to 4) 175 (-2437 to 2863) 9.8 (6.7 to 13) 8.6 (6.1 to 11.3) -12 (-30 to 18) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High fasting plasma glucose 24.3 (15.7 to 38.7) 16.2 (10.5 to 25.2) -34 (-38 to -29) 11.6 (5.7 to 24.3) 8 (4.1 to 16.1) -31 (-36 to -25) 10.6 (6.6 to 16.3) 7.2 (4.5 to 10.9) -32 (-38 to -26) 2.2 (1.2 to 3.4) 1 (0.6 to 1.5) -54 (-61 to -36)
  High systolic blood pressure 81.5 (67.6 to 94.8) 53.9 (45 to 62.4) -34 (-37 to -31) 32.8 (25.2 to 40.8) 22.9 (17.7 to 28.4) -30 (-34 to -27) 40 (30.8 to 49.4) 27.4 (21.3 to 33.3) -32 (-38 to -27) 8.7 (5.5 to 11.1) 3.6 (2.8 to 4.3) -59 (-65 to -40)
  High body-mass index 17.7 (8.7 to 29.1) 16.1 (9.4 to 23.7) -9 (-21 to 11) 6 (2.9 to 9.9) 5.4 (2.9 to 8.4) -11 (-19 to 1) 9.5 (4.5 to 16) 9.2 (5.4 to 13.9) -3 (-18 to 20) 2.2 (1 to 3.8) 1.6 (1 to 2.2) -27 (-46 to 6)
  Dietary risks 84 (74.4 to 93.5) 48.9 (42.9 to 54.6) -42 (-45 to -39) 30.2 (25.2 to 35.3) 19.5 (16.3 to 22.5) -36 (-40 to -31) 43.6 (36.9 to 51.3) 26.1 (22.2 to 30) -40 (-47 to -36) 10.2 (6.3 to 12.3) 3.3 (2.8 to 3.9) -67 (-72 to -51)
  Low physical activity 7.7 (2.6 to 14.3) 5.1 (1.8 to 9.4) -34 (-37 to -30) 7.7 (2.6 to 14.3) 5.1 (1.8 to 9.4) -34 (-37 to -30) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  Impaired kidney function 11.4 (8.5 to 14.6) 6.8 (5.1 to 8.6) -40 (-45 to -37) 5.6 (3.9 to 7.4) 3.4 (2.4 to 4.5) -40 (-43 to -36) 5.7 (4.5 to 7.2) 3.4 (2.7 to 4.2) -41 (-47 to -37) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High LDL cholesterol 13.7 (5 to 28.3) 9.2 (3.3 to 18.8) -33 (-37 to -30) 13.7 (5 to 28.3) 9.2 (3.3 to 18.8) -33 (-37 to -30) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
 World Bank High Income
  All risk factors 60.9 (57.2 to 64.2) 25.5 (23.6 to 27.5) -58 (-59 to -56) 33.2 (30.1 to 36.4) 12.5 (11 to 14.2) -62 (-64 to -60) 22.7 (21.4 to 23.9) 10.2 (9.4 to 10.9) -55 (-57 to -53) 4.9 (4.6 to 5.2) 2.8 (2.6 to 3.1) -42 (-45 to -39)
  Air pollution 5 (3.8 to 6.3) 1.9 (1.4 to 2.4) -62 (-65 to -60) 2.5 (1.9 to 3.3) 0.9 (0.6 to 1.1) -66 (-68 to -64) 2 (1.5 to 2.5) 0.8 (0.6 to 1) -61 (-64 to -58) 0.5 (0.4 to 0.6) 0.3 (0.2 to 0.3) -49 (-53 to -46)
  Other environmental risks 1.9 (0.9 to 3.1) 0.8 (0.3 to 1.3) -60 (-64 to -57) 0.9 (0.4 to 1.6) 0.3 (0.1 to 0.6) -62 (-66 to -60) 0.8 (0.4 to 1.4) 0.3 (0.1 to 0.6) -59 (-65 to -55) 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3) 0.1 (0 to 0.1) -53 (-61 to -46)
  Tobacco 15.1 (14.2 to 16) 4.2 (3.9 to 4.5) -72 (-74 to -71) 6.9 (6.4 to 7.3) 1.6 (1.5 to 1.8) -76 (-77 to -75) 6.5 (6.1 to 6.9) 1.9 (1.7 to 2) -71 (-73 to -69) 1.8 (1.7 to 1.9) 0.7 (0.6 to 0.7) -63 (-65 to -60)
  Alcohol use 7.1 (4.1 to 10.1) 2.1 (0.8 to 3.4) -71 (-83 to -62) 1.2 (-1 to 3.4) -0.1 (-0.9 to 0.8) -107 (-474 to 322) 5.9 (4 to 7.6) 2.1 (1.3 to 3) -63 (-71 to -58) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High fasting plasma glucose 15.1 (9 to 26.7) 7.8 (4.8 to 13.4) -48 (-53 to -42) 8.9 (4 to 20.2) 4.1 (1.9 to 9.6) -54 (-57 to -49) 5.2 (3.1 to 8.7) 3 (1.8 to 5) -43 (-48 to -38) 1 (0.6 to 1.4) 0.7 (0.5 to 1.1) -23 (-30 to -15)
  High systolic blood pressure 40.1 (33.7 to 46.4) 15.4 (12.6 to 18.2) -62 (-64 to -60) 20.8 (15.8 to 26.3) 7.1 (5.2 to 9.2) -66 (-68 to -64) 15.8 (12.5 to 18.8) 6.4 (4.9 to 8) -59 (-62 to -57) 3.5 (3 to 4.1) 1.9 (1.5 to 2.2) -47 (-51 to -44)
  High body-mass index 10.9 (6.3 to 16.2) 6.1 (4 to 8.4) -44 (-50 to -35) 3.9 (2 to 6.3) 1.9 (1.1 to 3) -52 (-56 to -44) 5.3 (3.1 to 7.9) 3.1 (2 to 4.3) -43 (-49 to -32) 1.7 (1.1 to 2.3) 1.1 (0.8 to 1.5) -31 (-37 to -21)
  Dietary risks 26.7 (23.6 to 30) 11.4 (9.9 to 12.9) -57 (-59 to -55) 12.9 (10.6 to 15.1) 4.9 (4 to 5.8) -62 (-64 to -60) 11 (9.2 to 12.8) 4.9 (4.1 to 5.8) -55 (-57 to -53) 2.8 (2.4 to 3.3) 1.6 (1.3 to 1.9) -43 (-45 to -40)
  Low physical activity 4.9 (1.6 to 9) 2 (0.6 to 3.6) -60 (-61 to -58) 4.9 (1.6 to 9) 2 (0.6 to 3.6) -60 (-61 to -58) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  Impaired kidney function 5.2 (3.6 to 7) 2.2 (1.5 to 3) -58 (-62 to -55) 3.2 (2 to 4.4) 1.3 (0.8 to 1.8) -61 (-65 to -57) 2.1 (1.5 to 2.6) 0.9 (0.7 to 1.2) -54 (-57 to -51) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High LDL cholesterol 9.1 (2.8 to 19.3) 3.3 (1 to 7.3) -64 (-66 to -62) 9.1 (2.8 to 19.3) 3.3 (1 to 7.3) -64 (-66 to -62) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
DALYs (Disability-Adjusted Life Years) per 100,000 people
 Global
  All risk factors 2073.7 (1981.4 to 2169.1) 1449.6 (1378.6 to 1519.4) -30 (-32 to -28) 819.9 (752.5 to 886) 605.6 (549.2 to 662.8) -26 (-29 to -23) 1021.9 (960 to 1102.1) 714.4 (680.8 to 747.7) -30 (-34 to -27) 231.9 (190 to 264.7) 129.6 (119.5 to 143.3) -44 (-49 to -33)
  Air pollution 333.9 (278.5 to 390.6) 201.9 (164.1 to 240.1) -40 (-43 to -37) 108.9 (87.8 to 129.6) 72.2 (57.4 to 87.3) -34 (-37 to -30) 181.9 (148.8 to 213.4) 109.7 (89.3 to 130.8) -40 (-44 to -36) 43.1 (33 to 53.1) 19.9 (15.6 to 24.6) -54 (-59 to -43)
  Other environmental risks 142.6 (94.4 to 196.2) 101.2 (66.7 to 139.1) -29 (-33 to -25) 42.2 (26 to 61) 37.8 (23.9 to 53.1) -11 (-17 to -2) 81.3 (52.8 to 114.4) 54.9 (35.2 to 77.1) -32 (-38 to -27) 19.1 (11.1 to 28.2) 8.5 (5 to 12.7) -56 (-63 to -43)
  Tobacco 559.4 (520.2 to 599.6) 340.5 (315.7 to 367.2) -39 (-42 to -37) 196.7 (180.3 to 214) 128.7 (116.7 to 142.1) -35 (-38 to -31) 291.2 (265.5 to 318.5) 179.1 (166.4 to 192.1) -38 (-42 to -35) 71.6 (57.7 to 84) 32.6 (29 to 36.9) -54 (-59 to -46)
  Alcohol use 194.3 (137.3 to 252.6) 172.6 (130.4 to 214.4) -11 (-24 to 7) 27.3 (-1.4 to 58.9) 35.1 (14.2 to 56.2) 29 (-271 to 440) 167 (120.6 to 211.5) 137.5 (103.1 to 171.5) -18 (-28 to -2) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High fasting plasma glucose 405.5 (280.5 to 582.8) 334.9 (235.8 to 464.6) -17 (-23 to -12) 180.8 (95.3 to 331) 150 (82.1 to 259.6) -17 (-24 to -9) 186.6 (119.8 to 268.8) 156.9 (101.4 to 221.3) -16 (-22 to -10) 38.1 (24.3 to 56.1) 28 (18.1 to 39.7) -27 (-34 to -12)
  High systolic blood pressure 1299.6 (1110.9 to 1465) 936.7 (805.3 to 1053) -28 (-30 to -26) 497.6 (399.2 to 591.1) 370.8 (295.5 to 439.7) -25 (-29 to -22) 653 (538.5 to 764.1) 478.4 (400.6 to 550.2) -27 (-31 to -23) 149 (116.2 to 178.9) 87.4 (72.5 to 104.2) -41 (-46 to -30)
  High body-mass index 388.4 (209.5 to 604.8) 406.8 (262.6 to 557.3) 5 (-10 to 27) 119.1 (64.4 to 186.6) 124.3 (75.8 to 179.9) 4 (-6 to 21) 211.1 (110.4 to 337.6) 228.8 (146.2 to 315.5) 8 (-8 to 35) 58.2 (31.8 to 91.6) 53.8 (36.6 to 71.8) -8 (-25 to 19)
  Dietary risks 1367.2 (1228.9 to 1512) 908 (809.5 to 1004.7) -34 (-36 to -31) 478.7 (407.9 to 550.4) 348 (293.5 to 401.4) -27 (-31 to -23) 714.7 (614.2 to 822.3) 471.4 (406.3 to 534.8) -34 (-38 to -31) 173.8 (136.7 to 205.7) 88.6 (75.1 to 103.3) -49 (-54 to -38)
  Low physical activity 98.9 (34.3 to 186.3) 70.1 (23.9 to 131.6) -29 (-32 to -25) 98.9 (34.3 to 186.3) 70.1 (23.9 to 131.6) -29 (-32 to -25) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  Impaired kidney function 177.7 (145.4 to 212.9) 126.9 (104.7 to 152.2) -29 (-32 to -25) 81.6 (63.9 to 100.1) 58.8 (47.1 to 72.3) -28 (-32 to -23) 96.2 (79.4 to 115.1) 68 (56 to 80.5) -29 (-33 to -26) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High LDL cholesterol 219.3 (122.7 to 370.8) 159.1 (93 to 269.2) -27 (-31 to -23) 219.3 (122.7 to 370.8) 159.1 (93 to 269.2) -27 (-31 to -23) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
 World Bank Low Income
  All risk factors 2555.9 (2337.6 to 2776.2) 1895.1 (1762.6 to 2011.5) -26 (-31 to -19) 830.2 (714.9 to 954.2) 657.3 (559.3 to 749.3) -21 (-27 to -15) 1549.7 (1363.8 to 1747.1) 1114.9 (1013.2 to 1219.3) -28 (-34 to -21) 176.1 (128 to 239.5) 122.8 (90.4 to 177.1) -30 (-39 to -19)
  Air pollution 563.4 (469.4 to 659.7) 372.2 (310 to 434.3) -34 (-40 to -27) 168.5 (136.2 to 205.5) 117 (93.5 to 142.3) -31 (-37 to -24) 352.7 (286.6 to 426.1) 229 (187.9 to 271.2) -35 (-41 to -28) 42.1 (29 to 59.8) 26.2 (18.4 to 38.9) -38 (-46 to -27)
  Other environmental risks 208.5 (136.5 to 286.1) 146.3 (96.7 to 200.1) -30 (-36 to -21) 59.8 (37.4 to 84) 49.2 (30.9 to 68.4) -18 (-24 to -9) 132.4 (83.3 to 188.2) 87 (54.4 to 123.2) -34 (-41 to -26) 16.3 (9.1 to 26.2) 10.2 (5.7 to 16.4) -38 (-46 to -24)
  Tobacco 388.6 (341.7 to 437.8) 272.2 (239.1 to 303.4) -30 (-36 to -23) 106.3 (89.5 to 126.1) 80.9 (67.8 to 95.5) -24 (-31 to -16) 248.5 (212 to 287.9) 169.9 (147.3 to 192.5) -32 (-38 to -23) 33.8 (22.9 to 47.8) 21.3 (14.8 to 31.3) -37 (-47 to -24)
  Alcohol use 186.1 (115.8 to 265.4) 115.7 (57.2 to 179) -38 (-55 to -23) 5.9 (-13.6 to 27.1) -1.5 (-18.9 to 16.1) -126 (-908 to 762) 180.1 (116 to 251.7) 117.3 (62.8 to 170) -35 (-50 to -23) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High fasting plasma glucose 630.5 (421.6 to 897.9) 526.7 (353.2 to 740.8) -16 (-24 to -7) 226.5 (112.9 to 436.8) 200.7 (101.7 to 387.3) -11 (-19 to -1) 366.8 (215.6 to 562.8) 296 (177.1 to 448.4) -19 (-27 to -9) 37.2 (20.2 to 61.9) 30.1 (16.3 to 50.5) -19 (-31 to -5)
  High systolic blood pressure 1584.9 (1342.7 to 1820.3) 1256.9 (1071.6 to 1414.2) -21 (-26 to -14) 488.2 (379 to 600.5) 408.3 (314.7 to 497) -16 (-22 to -10) 983.7 (786 to 1189.8) 764.5 (631.5 to 892) -22 (-29 to -15) 113 (79 to 160.9) 84 (59.9 to 123.7) -26 (-35 to -14)
  High body-mass index 329.1 (132.4 to 601.6) 387.5 (215.5 to 584.6) 18 (-6 to 70) 71.1 (27.6 to 133.9) 91.9 (49.3 to 145.4) 29 (4 to 86) 226.4 (89.9 to 413.6) 260.6 (144.3 to 399.4) 15 (-8 to 67) 31.6 (12.1 to 61.8) 35 (18 to 59.2) 11 (-14 to 70)
  Dietary risks 1656.9 (1431.3 to 1901.9) 1163.4 (1004.4 to 1332) -30 (-35 to -23) 488.3 (383.3 to 591) 372.4 (293.2 to 449.3) -24 (-30 to -17) 1040.5 (839.2 to 1254.7) 707.1 (575 to 844.1) -32 (-38 to -25) 128.1 (92.7 to 176.8) 83.8 (59.4 to 119.9) -35 (-43 to -24)
  Low physical activity 90.6 (30.2 to 175.3) 70.7 (24 to 135) -22 (-28 to -15) 90.6 (30.2 to 175.3) 70.7 (24 to 135) -22 (-28 to -15) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  Impaired kidney function 248.5 (198 to 305.1) 182.6 (147.6 to 220.4) -26 (-32 to -20) 92 (68.4 to 117.1) 71 (53.4 to 90.6) -23 (-29 to -16) 156.5 (123.8 to 193.2) 111.6 (90.2 to 135.1) -29 (-35 to -21) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High LDL cholesterol 173.8 (98.6 to 306.6) 147.7 (84.5 to 258.2) -15 (-22 to -7) 173.8 (98.6 to 306.6) 147.7 (84.5 to 258.2) -15 (-22 to -7) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
 World Bank Lower Middle Income
  All risk factors 2293.9 (2176.6 to 2406.5) 1809.2 (1721.2 to 1895) -21 (-25 to -18) 912.3 (817 to 1020.2) 714.5 (638.7 to 801.4) -22 (-26 to -17) 1174.1 (1047.7 to 1278.9) 931.5 (860.5 to 993.2) -21 (-26 to -16) 207.4 (173.1 to 259.1) 163.2 (144 to 192.6) -21 (-29 to -12)
  Air pollution 431.7 (363.7 to 502) 282.1 (230.7 to 332.5) -35 (-39 to -30) 149.3 (120.2 to 180) 98.6 (76.9 to 121.9) -34 (-39 to -29) 237.4 (193.1 to 279.5) 154.2 (123.9 to 185.2) -35 (-40 to -30) 45 (34.2 to 59.5) 29.3 (22.4 to 37.3) -35 (-42 to -27)
  Other environmental risks 174.8 (117.5 to 236.9) 138.6 (93.1 to 188.3) -21 (-26 to -16) 55.7 (35.2 to 78.5) 50.7 (32.6 to 70.8) -9 (-16 to -1) 100.9 (65.2 to 140.2) 75.2 (48.2 to 106.1) -25 (-31 to -19) 18.3 (11 to 28.3) 12.7 (7.6 to 18.9) -30 (-39 to -18)
  Tobacco 499.4 (454.4 to 546.4) 346.6 (314.5 to 379.9) -31 (-36 to -26) 173.5 (153.2 to 197.9) 120 (106.1 to 137.4) -31 (-36 to -26) 275.8 (240.4 to 309.9) 192.7 (172.5 to 213.7) -30 (-36 to -24) 50.1 (37.8 to 68.1) 33.9 (28.4 to 42.2) -32 (-42 to -18)
  Alcohol use 129.9 (84.1 to 177.3) 158 (120.2 to 200.3) 22 (0 to 62) 17.7 (-3.5 to 39.9) 31.9 (15.7 to 48.9) 80 (-662 to 998) 112.2 (76.6 to 150.1) 126.1 (92.2 to 162.1) 12 (-6 to 42) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High fasting plasma glucose 495.6 (336.7 to 727.4) 502.8 (350.6 to 701.9) 1 (-7 to 11) 216.2 (108.9 to 403.7) 212.3 (113 to 379) -2 (-12 to 10) 240.2 (149.7 to 359.9) 249.8 (160 to 360.9) 4 (-6 to 15) 39.1 (23.8 to 63.3) 40.6 (25.3 to 61.1) 4 (-9 to 19)
  High systolic blood pressure 1466.2 (1250.8 to 1653.1) 1199.5 (1035 to 1343.5) -18 (-22 to -14) 556.1 (442.5 to 672.3) 447.1 (357.7 to 535.1) -20 (-24 to -15) 772.7 (627 to 912) 639.5 (536.5 to 742.1) -17 (-23 to -12) 137.3 (106 to 177.1) 112.9 (90.7 to 139.2) -18 (-26 to -8)
  High body-mass index 318.2 (165.8 to 518.9) 448.3 (289.2 to 620.2) 41 (16 to 81) 96.1 (51.5 to 156.5) 121.2 (75.6 to 175.8) 26 (9 to 55) 182.5 (91.7 to 304.4) 268.4 (172 to 372.8) 47 (18 to 95) 39.6 (19.9 to 66.1) 58.7 (37.4 to 83.4) 48 (18 to 101)
  Dietary risks 1474.6 (1301.9 to 1649.7) 1057.7 (926.4 to 1202.3) -28 (-32 to -25) 529 (430.5 to 630) 377.9 (309.8 to 449.5) -29 (-32 to -24) 794.5 (655.5 to 928.5) 571.4 (477.3 to 672) -28 (-33 to -23) 151 (120 to 192.4) 108.4 (87.5 to 132.8) -28 (-35 to -20)
  Low physical activity 104.2 (35.3 to 195.8) 79.4 (27.3 to 148) -24 (-28 to -19) 104.2 (35.3 to 195.8) 79.4 (27.3 to 148) -24 (-28 to -19) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  Impaired kidney function 219.2 (179.7 to 263.4) 178.7 (147.7 to 214.2) -18 (-23 to -14) 98.2 (76.4 to 122.2) 77.8 (61.3 to 96.3) -21 (-25 to -15) 121 (97.5 to 145.9) 100.9 (82.8 to 120.7) -17 (-22 to -11) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High LDL cholesterol 210.8 (116.2 to 372.3) 168.6 (97.3 to 296.7) -20 (-24 to -14) 210.8 (116.2 to 372.3) 168.6 (97.3 to 296.7) -20 (-24 to -14) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
 World Bank Upper Middle Income
  All risk factors 2632.2 (2511.5 to 2772.3) 1713.5 (1618.1 to 1812.6) -35 (-38 to -32) 990.5 (916.9 to 1073.1) 759.4 (691.4 to 833.1) -23 (-28 to -19) 1320.1 (1241.1 to 1474.3) 827.2 (784.3 to 866.7) -37 (-43 to -34) 321.6 (223.9 to 367.1) 126.9 (112.9 to 137.7) -61 (-66 to -46)
  Air pollution 424 (353 to 494.8) 220.8 (177.6 to 265.2) -48 (-52 to -45) 133 (107.3 to 159.4) 85.9 (67.6 to 105.6) -35 (-41 to -30) 229.7 (187.8 to 275.8) 117 (94.1 to 140.3) -49 (-55 to -45) 61.3 (40.7 to 75.5) 17.9 (13.9 to 21.8) -71 (-75 to -59)
  Other environmental risks 195.9 (132.5 to 265.1) 125.6 (83.6 to 170.2) -36 (-41 to -31) 53.8 (33.5 to 77.1) 49.6 (31.6 to 70.2) -8 (-17 to 3) 111.9 (73.7 to 156.8) 67.3 (43.7 to 94.4) -40 (-48 to -33) 30.2 (16.3 to 44.6) 8.7 (5.3 to 12.6) -71 (-78 to -57)
  Tobacco 747.8 (691.5 to 805.9) 464.6 (431.7 to 499.7) -38 (-41 to -34) 247.6 (225.6 to 270.8) 186.1 (169.6 to 205.7) -25 (-31 to -19) 401.4 (363.8 to 451.8) 241.8 (224.9 to 259.2) -40 (-45 to -35) 98.8 (69.5 to 117.6) 36.6 (31.3 to 41.1) -63 (-69 to -50)
  Alcohol use 265.1 (184.8 to 348.7) 258.5 (187.7 to 327.5) -2 (-23 to 29) 32.9 (-0.3 to 68.7) 60.9 (30.2 to 93.4) 85 (-200 to 712) 232.1 (164.6 to 299.7) 197.6 (143.5 to 250.3) -15 (-32 to 10) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High fasting plasma glucose 449.7 (313.6 to 630.1) 319.1 (221.8 to 448.8) -29 (-34 to -24) 192 (105.4 to 346.3) 152.2 (85.5 to 260.8) -21 (-27 to -13) 209.3 (134.9 to 295.4) 143.6 (95.9 to 199.3) -31 (-38 to -26) 48.4 (28.7 to 71.9) 23.2 (15.5 to 32) -52 (-59 to -35)
  High systolic blood pressure 1591 (1343.6 to 1810) 1095.7 (930.5 to 1236) -31 (-34 to -28) 582.6 (459.2 to 694.7) 464.3 (364.9 to 551.4) -20 (-25 to -16) 810.6 (657.2 to 971.1) 546.1 (452.3 to 637.3) -33 (-39 to -28) 197.7 (135 to 245.2) 85.3 (69.6 to 100.3) -57 (-63 to -41)
  High body-mass index 492.6 (253.8 to 789) 477.8 (295.8 to 669.6) -3 (-17 to 20) 149.3 (78.4 to 236.4) 157.8 (92 to 235.1) 6 (-6 to 22) 272 (135.6 to 444.8) 265.5 (164.1 to 376) -2 (-18 to 24) 71.3 (35.5 to 119.8) 54.5 (37 to 72.8) -24 (-43 to 9)
  Dietary risks 1864.7 (1684.4 to 2045.5) 1130.3 (1008.6 to 1248.1) -39 (-43 to -36) 627.5 (536 to 718.2) 461.7 (390.1 to 530.3) -26 (-32 to -21) 983 (850 to 1140.6) 578.7 (504.4 to 646.9) -41 (-47 to -37) 254.2 (171.7 to 301.5) 89.9 (76.5 to 103.3) -65 (-70 to -51)
  Low physical activity 119.5 (41.7 to 223.1) 88 (30.1 to 164.7) -26 (-31 to -21) 119.5 (41.7 to 223.1) 88 (30.1 to 164.7) -26 (-31 to -21) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  Impaired kidney function 217.5 (177.8 to 263.5) 139.3 (113.8 to 167.6) -36 (-40 to -32) 97.8 (77 to 120.5) 68.4 (54.4 to 84.5) -30 (-35 to -25) 119.7 (98 to 145.5) 70.9 (58.7 to 84.3) -41 (-46 to -37) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High LDL cholesterol 268.1 (153.1 to 454) 203 (116 to 345.7) -24 (-29 to -20) 268.1 (153.1 to 454) 203 (116 to 345.7) -24 (-29 to -20) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
 World Bank High Income
  All risk factors 1142.6 (1081.3 to 1199.9) 555.6 (507.3 to 602.9) -51 (-54 to -49) 552 (504.7 to 599.4) 267.9 (231 to 305.6) -51 (-55 to -49) 443.9 (425.8 to 459) 198.4 (188 to 208.3) -55 (-57 to -54) 146.7 (138.3 to 155.2) 89.3 (81.5 to 97.3) -39 (-42 to -36)
  Air pollution 105.1 (80.3 to 132) 43.9 (32.6 to 55.8) -58 (-61 to -56) 43.9 (33 to 55.9) 17.9 (13.3 to 23.3) -59 (-62 to -56) 45.2 (34.3 to 56.3) 17.8 (13.1 to 22.8) -61 (-63 to -58) 16 (12 to 20.2) 8.3 (6 to 10.7) -48 (-52 to -45)
  Other environmental risks 37.6 (16.9 to 62.2) 14.1 (5.4 to 25.7) -62 (-69 to -58) 16 (7.2 to 26.9) 6.6 (2.6 to 11.9) -59 (-65 to -55) 16.7 (7.4 to 28) 5.6 (2.1 to 10.4) -67 (-74 to -62) 4.8 (1.8 to 8.9) 1.9 (0.5 to 4) -61 (-71 to -54)
  Tobacco 388.1 (362.5 to 413.8) 129.3 (116.2 to 143.3) -67 (-69 to -65) 161.6 (147 to 176.7) 53.7 (46 to 61.7) -67 (-69 to -64) 163.8 (154.6 to 172.3) 49.7 (46 to 53.6) -70 (-71 to -68) 62.8 (58.3 to 67.5) 25.9 (23.3 to 29) -59 (-61 to -56)
  Alcohol use 150.1 (101.9 to 199.9) 52.6 (27.6 to 78.7) -65 (-76 to -57) 28.2 (-5.7 to 63.2) 5.9 (-11 to 24.1) -79 (-259 to 70) 121.9 (87.1 to 153.6) 46.7 (29.8 to 62.2) -62 (-68 to -56) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High fasting plasma glucose 251.7 (165.7 to 396) 152.8 (100.1 to 227.4) -39 (-45 to -33) 135.8 (68.9 to 261.9) 81.4 (41.4 to 149.9) -40 (-46 to -33) 91.8 (59.7 to 131.9) 52.2 (33.9 to 76.1) -43 (-48 to -37) 24 (15.8 to 33.4) 19.2 (12.6 to 27) -20 (-26 to -12)
  High systolic blood pressure 762.2 (663.7 to 857.2) 333.7 (280 to 386.2) -56 (-58 to -54) 352.9 (281.9 to 419.5) 153.1 (116.7 to 188.4) -57 (-60 to -54) 306.8 (259.6 to 350.1) 124.2 (102.2 to 145.1) -60 (-61 to -58) 102.6 (85.7 to 118.6) 56.4 (45.7 to 67.7) -45 (-48 to -42)
  High body-mass index 318.7 (198.8 to 445.6) 213.4 (150.8 to 275.8) -33 (-40 to -21) 106.8 (62.1 to 158.7) 75.2 (49.5 to 105.3) -30 (-38 to -16) 147.7 (91.9 to 207) 89.8 (65.4 to 114.9) -39 (-46 to -28) 64.3 (42.4 to 86.8) 48.3 (35.7 to 61.3) -25 (-32 to -14)
  Dietary risks 608.4 (540 to 686) 303.2 (260.6 to 345.1) -50 (-52 to -48) 263.5 (219.7 to 308.1) 132.8 (106.6 to 159.7) -50 (-53 to -47) 249.9 (212.9 to 289.3) 112.6 (94.8 to 130.7) -55 (-56 to -53) 95 (80.9 to 109.7) 57.8 (48.4 to 67.4) -39 (-42 to -36)
  Low physical activity 72.9 (24.9 to 137.4) 36.3 (12.1 to 68.5) -50 (-53 to -47) 72.9 (24.9 to 137.4) 36.3 (12.1 to 68.5) -50 (-53 to -47) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  Impaired kidney function 87 (67.9 to 108.1) 41.3 (31.9 to 52.1) -53 (-55 to -50) 49.6 (36.6 to 63.6) 24.5 (18.1 to 32) -51 (-55 to -47) 37.4 (30.9 to 44.8) 16.8 (13.7 to 20.4) -55 (-57 to -53) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  High LDL cholesterol 166.3 (86.7 to 293.9) 78.8 (43.4 to 135) -53 (-56 to -47) 166.3 (86.7 to 293.9) 78.8 (43.4 to 135) -53 (-56 to -47) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0) 0 (0 to 0)
  1. Note: Data were extracted from [8]; All risk factors data report the aggregated values for all 11 modifiable risk factors, i.e., air pollution, other environmental risks, tobacco, alcohol use, high fasting plasma glucose, high systolic blood pressure, high body-mass index, dietary risks, low physical activity, impaired kidney function, and high LDL cholesterol; Non-significant changes are set in italics; Rates are defined per 100,000 people