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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Trends of blood pressure and heart rate in normal pregnancies: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Cross-sectional, case-control or longitudinal study Measurements from women with illnesses likely to affect the cardiac or respiratory systems
Minimum of 50 patients Measurements from women who were recruited because they were considered to be at high-risk of developing a pregnancy complication
Age 14 years or older Measurements from women known to be taking medication which could affect the measurements
Objective measurement* of heart rate and/or blood pressure Measurements from women where the reported gestational age at the point of measurement was not defined in terms of days or weeks of gestation
Measurements taken during the antenatal period, up to the start of the intrapartum period Measurements from women where the time window in which the measurement was taken was not defined to within 16 weeks
Raw data or average measure reported and possible to extract within minimum accuracy Measurements from self-monitoring or other measurements not taken by a healthcare professional
  Measurements from women with less than 10% singleton pregnancies
  For women known to undergo fertility procedures, any measurements taken prior to a positive pregnancy test
  Any of the following measurements (without valid baseline):
• Measurements taken using ambulatory technologies
• Measurements taken using invasive technologies
• Measurements taken during anaesthesia
• Measurements taken during sleep
• Measurements taken during exercise
• Measurements taken at heights greater than 1000 m above sea level
  1. *An overview of acceptable measurement techniques has been described previously [17]
  2. Defined as progressive cervical dilatation with regular contractions
  3. List of characteristics or diagnoses leading to exclusion are shown in Additional file 2: List S1