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Table 3 Observational association of 25(OH)D with risk of mortality in the CKB, CGPS, and CCHS

From: Vitamin D and cause-specific vascular disease and mortality: a Mendelian randomisation study involving 99,012 Chinese and 106,911 European adults

Mortality Continuous 25(OH)D per 25 nmol/L 25(OH)D quartiles (nmol/L) P for trend
No. of all events HR (95% CI) Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
CKB
 All-cause mortality 3868 1.02(0.97,1.06) 1.00 0.95(0.84,1.07) 0.97(0.85,1.10) 0.95(0.83,1.09) 0.458
Vascular death outcomes
 Major vascular event 3048 1.04(0.99,1.09) 1.00 0.93(0.81,1.07) 0.97(0.84,1.12) 1.00(0.86,1.17) 0.158
 Major coronary event 1262 1.05(0.97,1.14) 1.00 0.95(0.77,1.18) 0.98(0.79,1.23) 1.13(0.89,1.42) 0.186
 Myocardial infarction 898 1.04(0.94,1.14) 1.00 0.90(0.70,1.16) 1.02(0.79,1.33) 1.02(0.77,1.36) 0.427
 Stroke 1590 1.06(0.98,1.13) 1.00 0.95(0.78,1.14) 1.01(0.82,1.23) 1.01(0.82,1.26) 0.136
 Ischaemic stroke 118 1.06(0.84,1.33) 1.00 0.58(0.30,1.12) 0.61(0.30,1.21) 0.84(0.42,1.67) 0.622
 Intracerebral haemorrhage 1416 1.05(0.98,1.14) 1.00 0.97(0.80,1.19) 1.06(0.85,1.32) 1.04(0.82,1.31) 0.166
 Subarachnoid haemorrhage 68 1.01(0.98,1.03) 1.00 0.95(0.18,4.93) 1.52(0.32,7.33) 1.10(0.18,6.83) 0.685
 Ischaemic heart disease 1262 1.05(0.97,1.14) 1.00 0.95(0.77,1.18) 0.98(0.79,1.23) 1.13(0.89,1.42) 0.186
Non-vascular death outcomes
 Cancer 370 1.00(0.99,1.01) 1.00 1.22(0.81,1.83) 1.17(0.76,1.79) 1.00(0.63,1.58) 0.818
 Respiratory diseases 46 1.00(0.99,1.01) 1.00 0.91(0.47,1.73) 1.28(0.68,2.42) 0.75(0.35,1.60) 0.798
 Infections 64 1.00(0.98,1.02) 1.00 0.51(0.08,3.17) 0.38(0.06,2.53) 1.00(0.21,4.81) 0.946
CGPS and CCHS
 All-cause mortality 10,845 0.90(0.88,0.93) 1.00 0.81(0.77,0.85) 0.79(0.75,0.83) 0.77(0.73,0.82) 2 × 10−20
Vascular death outcomes
 Cardiovascular disease 3303 0.90(0.86,0.93) 1.00 0.85(0.78,0.93) 0.78(0.71,0.87) 0.80(0.72,0.90) 1.9 × 10−8
 Myocardial infarction 676 0.86(0.78,0.98) 1.00 0.68(0.55,0.83) 0.78(0.63,0.97) 0.70(0.54,0.90) 0.0037
 Stroke 743 0.93(0.86,1.03) 1.00 0.97(0.81,1.17) 0.74(0.60,0.92) 1.00(0.79,1.26) 0.28
 Ischaemic stroke 385 0.88(0.78,1.00) 1.00 1.06(0.82,1.36) 0.65(0.48,0.89) 0.96(0.69,1.34) 0.18
 Intracerebral haemorrhage 178 1.05(0.88,1.25) 1.00 1.06(0.71,1.57) 0.96(0.62,1.49) 1.16(0.72,1.86) 0.71
 Ischaemic heart disease 1395 0.88(0.82,0.95) 1.00 0.80(0.70,0.92) 0.80(0.69,0.93) 0.76(0.63,0.90) 6 × 10−4
Non-vascular death outcomes
 Cancer 3127 0.93(0.88,0.98) 1.00 0.86(0.78,0.94) 0.87(0.78,0.96) 0.79(0.71,0.89) 9.7 × 10−5
 Respiratory diseases 1065 0.86(0.80,0.93) 1.00 0.69(0.59,0.82) 0.67(0.56,0.80) 0.71(0.59,0.87) 6.6 × 10−4
 Infections 430 0.84(0.76,0.95) 1.00 0.76(0.59,0.98) 0.85(0.66,1.11) 0.73(0.53,1.00) 0.082
 All other causes 2463 0.86(0.82,0.90) 1.00 0.73(0.66,0.81) 0.71(0.63,0.79) 0.68(0.59,0.78) 4.6 × 10−10
  1. Multivariable cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the association between quartile groups of 25(OH)D concentrations and risk of mortality
  2. All values are adjusted for age (years), sex (male or female), smoking status (current smoker), alcohol intake (current drinker), season, region, SBP, and physical activity (low activity) in CKB
  3. All values are adjusted for age (years), sex (male or female), latitude, season, SBP, physical activity (METs, h/day), smoking status (never smoker, occasional smoker, former smoker, or regular smoker), and alcohol intake (non-drinker, occasional drinker, former drinker, or regular drinker) in CGPS and CCHS