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Table 3 Maternal and birth characteristics of SGA or LGA newborns by customized charts only compared to newborns classified as SGA or LGA by both classifications

From: Customized versus population birth weight charts for identification of newborns at risk of long-term adverse cardio-metabolic and respiratory outcomes: a population-based prospective cohort study

  Small size for gestational age   Large size for gestational age  
Customized onlya Customized and populationb p value Customized onlya Customized and populationb p value
n = 150 n = 455   n = 129 n = 476  
Maternal characteristics
 Age, median (95% range), years 30.5 (20.4 to 39.0) 30.5 (19.6 to 40.3) 0.215 27.7 (19.9 to 36.0) 31.2 (20.7 to 40.0) < 0.001
 Height, mean (SD) (cm) 169.0 (7.8) 165.3 (7.0) < 0.001 165.7 (6.4) 170.3 (7.2) < 0.001
 Weight, mean (SD) (kg) 85.4 (18.1) 67.3 (12.8) < 0.001 60.8 (7.6) 72.9 (12.8) < 0.001
 Body mass index, mean (SD) (kg/m2) 30.0 (6.5) 24.6 (4.6) < 0.001 22.2 (2.5) 25.2 (4.6) < 0.001
 Obesity, no. (%) 67 (44.7) 56 (12.3) < 0.001 2 (1.6) 58 (12.2) < 0.001
 Education, no. higher (%) 51 (34.0) 166 (36.5) 0.582 57 (44.2) 249 (52.3) 0.102
 Race/ethnicity, no. (%) Dutch or European 101 (67.3) 253 (55.6) 0.011 56 (43.4) 327 (68.7) < 0.001
 Parity, no. nulliparous (%) 50 (33.3) 298 (65.5) < 0.001 108 (83.7) 222 (46.6) < 0.001
 Smoking, no. (%)    0.055    0.711
  None 109 (75.2) 282 (64.5)   100 (80.0) 366 (79.2)  
  Early pregnancy only 9 (6.2) 33 (7.6)   14 (11.2) 45 (9.7)  
  Continued 27 (18.6) 122 (27.9)   11 (8.8) 51 (11.0)  
Birth characteristics
 Males, no. (%) 67 (44.7) 185 (40.7) 0.388 72 (55.8) 281 (59.0) 0.511
 Gestational age, median (95% range), weeks 40.1 (32.6 to 42.4) 39.6 (31.9 to 42.3) 0.007 40.0 (36.4 to 42.4) 39.9 (36.1 to 42.0) 0.058
 Birth weight, mean (SD) grams 2981 (412) 2503 (445) < 0.001 3922 (319) 4245 (386) < 0.001
 Preterm birth, no. (%) 12 (8.0) 62 (13.6) 0.068 3 (2.3) 18 (3.8) 0.423
 Cesarean delivery, no. (%) 19 (13.4) 88 (20.8) 0.051 20 (16.7) 74 (17.2) 0.897
 Assisted delivery, no. (%) 9 (6.3) 66 (15.6) 0.005 27 (22.5) 48 (11.1) 0.001
 APGAR score below 7 at 5 min, no. (%) 5 (3.4) 11 (2.5) 0.549 0 (0) 5 (1.1) 0.237
  1. Values are median (95% range), mean (SD), and absolute numbers (%), and p values for comparison between population only and customized and population classification. Continuous variables were tested using ANOVA; categorical variables were tested using Chi2 tests
  2. SD standard deviation
  3. aAs defined by the population birth weight classification, but appropriately sized according to customized birth weight classification
  4. bAs defined by the both customized and population birth weight classification