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Table 3 RF and general distress comparisons: CA+ (n = 631) versus CA− (n = 499) groups

From: Unravelling the complex nature of resilience factors and their changes between early and later adolescence

 AgeCA+CA−W/χ2(df)95% CI*1p*2
Friendship support (high)140.090.23173,600.04 to .22< .01
170.070.30180,700.12 to .33< .001
Family support (high)14− 0.020.17178,690.09 to .29< .001
17− 0.070.14180,780.12 to .33< .001
Family cohesion (high)14− 0.100.29198,690.30 to .51< .001
17− 0.180.29198,080.37 to .63< .001
Negative self-esteem (low)140.060.29182,270.11 to .31< .001
170.100.55187,900.25 to .58< .001
Positive self-esteem (high)14− 0.080.21188,440.20 to .41< .001
17− 0.140.22192,880.26 to .50< .001
Ruminative brooding (low)140.030.19175,000.07 to .28< .01
17− 0.070.12182,540.11 to .28< .001
Reflective rumination (low)140.100.20167,440− .00 to .19.066
17− 0.080.00170,430.01 to .15< .05
Distress tolerance (high)14− 0.060.25188,300.21 to .43< .001
170.020.42195,600.30 to .53< .001
Aggression (low)14Low: 498 (s = 1)Low: 440 (s = 1)16.27 (1) < .001
High: 133 (s = 0)High: 59 (s = 0)
17Low: 491 (s = 1)Low: 425 (s = 1)09.35 (1) < .01
High: 140 (s = 0)High: 74 (s = 0)
Expressive suppression (low)14Low: 418 (s = 1)Low: 371 (s = 1)08.31 (1) < .01
High: 213 (s = 0)High: 128 (s = 0)
17Low: 396 (s = 1)Low: 355 (s = 1)08.42 (1) < .01
High: 235 (s = 0)High: 144 (s = 0)
General distress14− 0.09− 0.40130,950− .43 to − .18< .001
17− 0.09− 0.68125,400− .75 to − .38< .001
  1. Note. CA childhood adversity. All RFs are scored in such a way that high values are protective (e.g. high levels of high friendship support or high levels of low negative self-esteem) and low values are harmful (e.g. low levels of high friendship support or low levels of low negative self-esteem). The continuous general distress variable is scored in such a way that the higher the value the higher the level of general distress. *1The confidence interval (CI) for the difference in location estimates, corresponding to the alternative hypothesis. *2Please note the p values are corrected for the false discovery rate, which is why the CIs do not have to contain 0 for the p value to be nonsignificant