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Table 2 Risk factors for linear growth faltering among children 0–23 months old with MSD with complete outcome data. Statistically significant results (p < 0.05) are italicized. Asterisks (*) denote results from a robust Poisson model rather than log-binomial model

From: Determinants of linear growth faltering among children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study

 ΔLAZSevere linear growth faltering
MeanSDCrude difference in change in LAZAdjusted for age, site, duration of follow-up, and baseline LAZaNo. with outcomePrevalence of loss of ≥ 0.5 LAZCrude relative risksAdjusted for age, site, duration of follow-up, and baseline LAZa
Ageb
 0–6 months− 0.270.70− 0.12 (− 0.14, − 0.09)− 0.02 (− 0.06, 0.01)38135.4%1.61 (1.45, 1.79)1.41 (1.22, 1.51)*
 > 6–12 months− 0.310.49− 0.08 (− 0.11, − 0.04)− 0.07 (− 0.10, − 0.04)78833.4%1.52 (1.39, 1.66)1.36 (1.22, 1.51)*
 > 12–23 months− 0.190.40ReferenceReference60722.0%ReferenceReference
Stuntingc
 No− 0.290.49ReferenceReference147231.2%ReferenceReference
 Yes− 0.120.500.17 (0.14, 0.20)0.16 (0.13, 0.19)30420.6%0.66 (0.59, 0.74)0.69 (0.61, 0.78)*
Sex
 Male− 0.250.53ReferenceReference84719.6%ReferenceReference
 Female− 0.240.470.01 (− 0.01, 0.04)0.02 (− 0.0003, 0.05)58817.7%0.92 (0.85, 1.00)0.91 (0.83, 1.00)*
Wasting
 No− 0.220.51ReferenceReference130326.9%ReferenceReference
 Yes− 0.340.48− 0.12 (− 0.15, − 0.09)− 0.21 (− 0.24, − 0.18)47334.9%1.30 (1.19, 1.41)1.57 (1.41, 1.76)
MUAC (among 6–23 months)
 12.5− 0.240.45ReferenceReference112926.5%ReferenceReference
 < 12.5 cm− 0.270.46− 0.04 (− 0.07, − 0.004)− 0.12 (− 0.15, − 0.08)26630.8%1.16 (1.02, 1.33)1.42 (1.23, 1.64)
Current breastfeeding (among < 6 months)
 Exclusive− 0.300.73ReferenceReference14533.0%ReferenceReference
 Partial− 0.250.680.05 (− 0.05, 0.14)− 0.01 (− 0.10, 0.09)32334.0%1.03 (0.88, 1.21)1.12 (0.90, 1.40)*
 None− 0.280.750.01 (− 0.20, 0.23)− 0.11 (− 0.32, 0.11)2537.9%1.15 (0.82, 1.61)1.41 (0.91, 2.20)*
Diarrhea typed
 Acute− 0.230.48ReferenceReference82926.6%ReferenceReference
 Prolonged− 0.260.50− 0.01 (− 0.07, − 0.003)− 0.01 (− 0.04, 0.01)56829.8%1.12 (1.01, 1.25)1.08 (0.97, 1.20)*
 Persistent− 0.260.50− 0.03 (− 0.06, 0.01)− 0.003 (− 0.04, 0.04)19629.9%1.12 (0.96, 1.31)0.98 (0.95, 1.30)*
Hospitalized at enrollment
 No− 0.230.49ReferenceReference138621.0%ReferenceReference
 Yes− 0.320.43− 0.09 (− 0.12, − 0.06)− 0.11 (− 0.14, − 0.07)49131.7%1.37 (1.26, 1.49)1.36 (1.20, 1.53)*
Presentation with fever
 No− 0.220.51ReferenceReference107426.1%ReferenceReference
 Yes− 0.310.49− 0.10 (− 0.13, − 0.07)− 0.09 (− 0.11, − 0.06)61634.5%1.32 (1.22, 1.43)1.25 (1.12, 1.38)*
Presentation with dysentery
 No− 0.260.51ReferenceReference111724.7%ReferenceReference
 Yes− 0.200.490.06 (0.03, 0.9)0.07 (0.04, 0.11)31022.6%0.91 (0.82, 1.02)0.88 (0.75, 1.02)*
Co-morbidities
 None− 0.230.49ReferenceReference109026.4%ReferenceReference
 Any− 0.280.51− 0.06 (− 0.08, − 0.03)− 0.06 (− 0.09, − 0.03)68633.0%1.25 (1.16, 1.35)1.19 (1.05, 1.34)*
 Pneumonia− 0.250.53− 0.01 (− 0.06, 0.04)−0.0002 (− 0.05, 0.05)12028.6%1.00 (0.85, 1.17)0.92 (0.76, 1.10)*
 Malaria− 0.290.53− 0.06 (− 0.09, − 0.03)− 0.03 (− 0.06, 0.01)51534.1%1.27 (1.16, 1.38)1.15 (1.01, 1.31)*
 Malnutrition−0.310.47− 0.07 (− 0.12, − 0.01)− 0.19 (− 0.24, − 0.13)11633.2%1.17 (1.01, 1.37)1.52 (1.25, 1.85)*
 Other bacterial infection− 0.390.57− 0.15 (− 0.26, − 0.04)− 0.08 (− 0.19, 0.02)4048.8%1.72 (1.37, 2.15)1.32 (0.96, 1.83)*
 Upper respiratory tract infection− 0.250.69− 0.0004 (− 0.34, 0.34)0.07 (− 0.27, 0.41)114.3%0.59 (0.103.63)0.54 (008, 3.83)*
IMCI danger signs
 None− 0.100.49ReferenceReference58022.8%ReferenceReference
 At least 1− 0.280.51− 0.07 (− 0.09, − 0.04)− 0.09 (− 0.11, − 0.06)119632.7%1.43 (1.31, 1.56)1.35 (1.22, 1.50)*
 3 signs present− 0.270.58− 0.08 (− 0.20, 0.0.04)− 0.05 (− 0.17, 0.07)2131.8%1.39 (0.90, 2.16)1.29 (0.83, 2.00)*
 2 signs present− 0.290.49− 0.10 (− 0.14, − 0.07)− 0.07 (− 0.11, − 0.04)39634.1%1.49 (1.32, 1.70)1.32 (1.15, 1.51)*
 1 sign present− 0.280.490.08 (− 0.11, − 0.05)− 0.07 (− 0.10, − 0.04)77732.0%1.40 (1.26, 1.56)1.37 (1.22, 1.53)*
Access to improved water
 No− 0.250.51ReferenceReference100729.8%ReferenceReference
 Yes− 0.240.490.01 (− 0.01, 0.04)− 0.04 (− 0.07, − 0.01)76927.2%0.91 (0.83, 1.00)1.09 (0.96, 1.23)*
Improved defecation facility
 No− 0.260.50ReferenceReference146429.0%ReferenceReference
 Yes− 0.210.490.05 (0.01, 0.08)0.07 (0.03, 0.11)31227.1%0.93 (0.83, 1.05)0.87 (0.74, 1.01)*
Wealth index
 Lowest quintile− 0.250.49ReferenceReference34428.3%ReferenceReference
 Second lowest− 0.280.52− 0.03 (− 0.07, 0.01)− 0.01 (− 0.05, 0.03)39932.0%1.13 (1.00, 1.28)1.06 (0.91, 1.22)*
 Middle− 0.250.500.005 (− 0.03, 0.04)0.03 (− 0.01, 0.07)38728.8%1.02 (0.90, 1.15)0.95 (0.82, 1.10)*
 Second highest− 0.230.470.03 (− 0.01, 0.07)0.04 (− 0.001, 0.08)29625.5%0.90 (0.79, 1.03)0.92 (0.79, 1.08)*
 Highest quintile− 0.210.520.03 (− 0.07, 0.01)0.08 (0.04, 0.12)34728.2%0.99 (0.86, 1.13)0.90 (0.77, 1.04)*
  1. aAnalyses of age and stunting were not adjusted for age and baseline LAZ, respectively
  2. bAnalysis of age as a risk factor was not adjusted for age
  3. cAnalysis of stunting was not adjusted for baseline LAZ
  4. dData on duration of diarrhea for the 7 days before enrollment were ascertained at enrollment (children with diarrhea lasting longer than 7 days were excluded at this point), and data on diarrhea duration for the 14 days following enrollment were ascertained with a memory aid suitable for groups of all literacy levels, which the caregiver returned at the 60-day follow-up visit