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Table 1 Study characteristics – population characteristics

From: Drug-resistant enteric fever worldwide, 1990 to 2018: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study characteristicsNumber of studies (%)
Region of studya
 Andean Latin America2 (0.5)
 Central Asia3 (0.8)
 East Asia12 (3.1)
 North Africa & Middle East17 (4.4)
 South Asia276 (71)
 Southeast Asia38 (9.8)
 Sub-Saharan Africa, Central6 (1.5)
 Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern14 (3.6)
 Sub-Saharan Africa, Western21 (5.4)
Number of blood cultures screened
 0-9913 (3.4)
 100-49943 (11.2)
 500-99930 (7.8)
 1000-499949 (12.8)
 5000+59 (15.4)
 Not stated190 (49.5)
Specific age groups
 Adults only5 (1.3)
 Children only68 (17.7)
 No specified age restrictions/Adults and children311 (81)
Reported pre-admission antibiotic use (proportion of patients in the study)b
 019 (4.9)
 1-25%15 (3.8)
 26-50%13 (3.3)
 51-75%7 (1.8)
 76-100%7 (1.8)
 Not stated329 (84.4)
Reported case fatality rate
 061 (15.9)
 1-5%24 (6.3)
 6-10%2 (0.5)
 11-15%1 (0.3)
 16-20%2 (0.5)
 21-25%1 (0.3)
 Not stated293 (76.3)
Patient typec
 Inpatients73 (19)
 Outpatients14 (3.6)
 Outpatients & Emergency department6 (1.6)
 Inpatients & Outpatients44 (11.4)
 Community7 (1.8)
 Not specified241 (62.6)
  1. aThree studies reported isolates from multiple regions
  2. bSix studies reported the proportion of participants using antibiotics prior to testing separately for different sites or for persons infected with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A separately
  3. cOne study consisted of two separate parts, one was community based and the other in outpatients