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Table 1 Estimated effect sizes of T2D on ALS in previous observational studies

From: Causal association of type 2 diabetes with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: new evidence from Mendelian randomization using GWAS summary statistics

First authorYearNationEffect size (95% CI)Ref
DOvidio2018Italy0.30 (0.19–0.45)[14]
Visser2017Netherlands0.77 (0.33–1.21)[15]
Hollinger2016USA0.80 (0.53–1.21)[10]
Mitchell2015USA0.47 (0.38–0.58)[11]
Mariosa2015Sweden0.79 (0.68–0.91)[16]
Seelen2014Netherlands0.72 (0.51–1.01)[17]
Turner2013England0.98 (0.85–1.13)[18]
Kioumourtzoglou2015Denmark0.61 (0.46–0.80)[19]
Moglia2017Italy1.05 (0.78–1.42)[20]
Korner2012Germany1.11 (0.76–1.60)[21]
Armon1991USA1.00 (0.29–3.50)[13]
Sun2015China1.35 (1.10–1.67)[22]
Pool 1  0.73 (0.59–0.90) 
Pool 2  0.77 (0.62–0.96) 
  1. Pool 1: the effect size estimated without the study of Sun [22] as it was performed on the East Asian population; pool 2: the effect size estimated with all the studies; both estimations were generated by random-effects meta-analysis models