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Table 1 Key predictors of infections due to P. falciparum and P. vivax as detected by qPCR in 2013

From: Differential impact of malaria control interventions on P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in young Papua New Guinean children

 P. falciparumP. vivax
 Observed positive (%; n = 4363)ORCI95pObserved positive (%; n = 4363)ORCI95p
Areas of residence
 Ilahita 1–4, 6, 74.5Reference group6.1Reference group
 Balanga and Balif4.61.010.59–1.720.9696.00.980.51–1.880.946
 Kamanokor and Ilahita 512.92.291.38–3.800.00138.09.225.55–15.3< 0.001
 Sunuhu 1 and 228.87.635.34–10.9< 0.00145.213.78.81–21.3< 0.001
   p < 0.0001a   p < 0.0001a 
Age
 Linear 2.911.26–6.700.012 1.321.16–1.51< 0.001
 Quadratic 0.880.78–0.990.032    
ADI visit
 Enrolment18.4Reference group23.2Reference group
 Week 48.70.400.27–0.58< 0.00121.40.800.61–1.050.105
 Week 88.70.390.19–0.46< 0.00121.30.850.65–1.110.238
 Week 127.10.300.19–0.46< 0.00119.10.710.53–0.960.024
 Week 168.10.340.22–0.53< 0.00117.80.650.49–0.880.004
 Week 209.90.470.27–0.790.00420.30.660.45–0.980.04
 Week 247.60.310.19–0.52< 0.00121.80.830.59–1.190.312
 Week 287.20.360.22–0.60< 0.00117.90.640.43–0.940.024
 Week 328.80.400.25–0.65< 0.00118.10.570.40–0.830.004
 Week 3610.80.550.35–0.850.00718.00.530.37–0.760.001
 Week 4032.23.202.15–4.74< 0.00122.90.820.56–1.190.298
   p < 0.0001a   p = 0.0129a 
Haemoglobin 0.650.57–0.74< 0.001    
Recent antimalarial
 No11.5   20.3   
 Yes21.3   15.00.340.17–0.710.004
Enlarged spleen
 No10.8   19.2   
 Yes38.6   54.61.660.98–2.790.059
Febrile illness
 No10.9   19.7   
 Yes25.01.841.30–2.620.00129.2   
b2 weeks history of febrile illness
 No11.5   20.0   
 Yes28.62.240.93–5.380.07338.11.841.02–3.320.042
  1. Multivariate GEE model-based estimates of risk of infection detected at each monthly active case detection visit time-point via backward selection of significant risk factors. OR multivariate adjusted odds ratio, CI95 95% confidence interval, p p value, ADI active detection of infection. aOverall significance level for the variable estimated using Wald chi-square test. bExcluding febrile illness at the time of visit