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Table 1 Summary of publications from the TORPEDO programme

From: The NASSS framework for ex post theorisation of technology-supported change in healthcare: worked example of the TORPEDO programme

PaperEmpirical focusSubset of data analysed in this paperTheoretical contribution
Peiris et al. [27]Development and validation of HealthTracker software for risk factor measurement and managementDevelopment sample: 137 patients in 1 practice. Validation sample: 21 GPs from 8 practices and 3 Aboriginal Medical Services generated data for 200 patientsClinical validity and reliability of the technology. Comparison with existing gold standard statistical algorithm
Peiris et al. [28]GPs’ experience of using the HealthTracker technology in a clinical setting21 qualitative interviews with participating GPsTechnology-in-practice lens. Knowledge from the tool was combined pragmatically in real time with intuitive and informal knowledge from GPs’ professional networks and wider clinical and patient priorities
Patel et al. [29]Protocol for mixed-methods process evaluation for RCTN/AMultiple evaluation theories considered:
Logic model using RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance)
Realist evaluation
Normalisation process theory
Theoretical domains framework
Peiris et al. [30]Cluster RCT of HealthTracker vs usual care in Australian primary care60 sites randomised (30 in each arm). Descriptive data on uptake and use of the technology and patient process/outcome measuresEffect size. Compared to control arm:
10% increase in percentage of eligible patients receiving appropriate and timely measurement of cardiovascular risk factors (statistically significant)
Small increase in percentage of people at high risk of cardiovascular disease receiving recommended medication prescriptions (not statistically significant)
O’Grady et al. [31]In-depth qualitative study of risk communicationVideo ethnography of a single case, analysed using multi-modal linguistic ethnographyInteractional socio-linguistics: the computer as a social and material “actor” in a complex communicative encounter
Patel et al. [32]Post-trial real-world implementation study41 sites included (from 60 of the original sample).
Quantitative process and outcome measures as for RCT
Sustained overall effect: evidence of continued risk factor testing and improvements in prescription of evidence-based preventive medication with significant benefit for the undertreated high risk patients
Patel et al. [33]Mixed-methods process evaluation of the RCTPurposive (maximum variety) sample of 6 sites agreed to participate in the process evaluation. Quantitative process measures included attitude to technology survey (n = 32 GPs from 21/30 intervention sites). Qualitative process measures included 19 health professional interviews.Variation in use of HealthTracker or patient outcomes was not explained by team climate or job satisfaction. Normalisation process theory informed a thematic analysis which identified 4 influences on technology uptake: organisational mission, leadership, collaboration, and unintended material consequences of the technology