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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of exposed women and matched comparison group, stratified by therapy comparison. Data are numbers (percentages) and standardised differences

From: Use of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy is not associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: a population-based cohort study

 Aim 1Aim 2
Bupropion vs unexposedVarenicline vs unexposedNRT vs unexposedVarenicline 1st trimester vs unexposedVarenicline vs NRT
BupropionUnexposedDiff*VareniclineUnexposedDiff*NRTUnexposedDiff*VareniclineUnexposedDiff*VareniclineNRTDiff*
Total number2322320 105710,570 3283280 6966960 173173 
State of delivery
 New South Wales177 (76.3%)1819 (78.4%)0.05801 (75.8%)8109 (76.7%)0.02248 (75.6%)2484 (75.7%)0.00696 (100%)6960 (100%) 131 (75.7%)127 (73.4%)0.05
 Western Australia55 (23.7%)501 (21.6%)0.05256 (24.2%)2461 (23.3%)0.0280 (24.4%)796 (24.3%)0.00   42 (24.3%)46 (26.6%)0.05
Year of conception
 200439 (16.8%)389 (16.8%)0.00            
 200559 (25.4%)613 (26.4%)0.02            
 200642 (18.1%)391 (16.9%)0.03            
 200745 (19.4%)483 (20.8%)0.04            
 200817 (7.3%)194 (8.4%)0.04179 (16.9%)1699 (16.1%)0.02   116 (16.7%)1057 (15.2%)0.04   
 20097 (3.0%)75 (3.2%)0.01270 (25.5%)2666 (25.2%)0.019 (2.7%)73 (2.2%)0.03169 (24.3%)1740 (25.0%)0.02   
 201012 (5.2%)93 (4.0%)0.06315 (29.8%)3153 (29.8%)0.0047 (14.3%)412 (12.6%)0.05220 (31.6%)2200 (31.6%)0.0021 (12.2%)†, §22 (12.7%) §0.02
 201111 (4.7%)#82 (3.6%)#0.05239 (22.6%)2480 (23.5%)0.02212 (64.6%)2228 (67.9%)0.07155 (22.3%)1643 (23.6%)0.03123 (71.1%)116 (67.1%)0.09
 2012   54 (5.1%)572 (5.4%)0.0160 (18.3%)567 (17.3%)0.0336 (5.2%)320 (4.6%)0.0329 (16.8%)35 (20.2%)0.09
Maternal age (conception)
 Under 2561 (26.3%)589 (25.4%)0.02332 (31.4%)3341 (31.6%)0.0094 (28.7%)910 (27.7%)0.02215 (30.9%)2172 (31.2%)0.0157 (32.9%)47 (27.2%)0.13
 25–2976 (32.8%)792 (34.1%)0.03318 (30.1%)3132 (29.6%)0.0199 (30.2%)1060 (32.3%)0.05230 (33.0%)2177 (31.3%)0.0453 (30.6%)54 (31.2%)0.01
 30–3461 (26.3%)602 (25.9%)0.01227 (21.5%)2360 (22.3%)0.0284 (25.6%)819 (25.0%)0.01133 (19.1%)1418 (20.4%)0.0334 (19.7%)41 (23.7%)0.10
 35 and older34 (14.7%)337 (14.5%)0.00180 (17.0%)1737 (16.4%)0.0251 (15.5%)491 (15.0%)0.02118 (17.0%)1193 (17.1%)0.0029 (16.8%)31 (17.9%)0.03
Aboriginal9 (3.9%)110 (4.7%)0.04101 (9.6%)926 (8.8%)0.0393 (28.4%)875 (26.7%)0.0471 (10.2%)648 (9.3%)0.0332 (18.5%)36 (20.8%)0.06
Overseas born35 (15.1%)367 (15.8%)0.02180 (17.0%)1815 (17.2%)0.0024 (7.3%)206 (6.3%)0.04104 (14.9%)1015 (14.6%)0.0126 (15.0%)11 (6.4%)0.28
Had a partner173 (74.6%)1764 (76.0%)0.03719 (68.0%)7218 (68.3%)0.01179 (54.6%)1792 (54.6%)0.00452 (64.9%)4584 (65.9%)0.02119 (68.8%)91 (52.6%)0.34
Private health insurance34 (14.7%)288 (12.4%)0.07141 (13.3%)1435 (13.6%)0.0123 (7.0%)207 (6.3%)0.0387 (12.5%)836 (12.0%)0.0120 (11.6%)10 (5.8%)0.21
Socio-economic disadvantage
 Quintile 1 (most disadvantaged)48 (20.7%)519 (22.4%)0.04172 (16.3%)1722 (16.3%)0.0053 (16.2%)479 (14.6%)0.04123 (17.7%)1264 (18.2%)0.0133 (19.1%)26 (15.0%)0.11
 Quintile 239 (16.8%)411 (17.7%)0.02164 (15.5%)1629 (15.4%)0.0062 (18.9%)644 (19.6%)0.02112 (16.1%)1073 (15.4%)0.0223 (13.3%)41 (23.7%)0.27
 Quintile 346 (19.8%)445 (19.2%)0.02263 (24.9%)2546 (24.1%)0.0284 (25.6%)875 (26.7%)0.02201 (28.9%)1948 (28.0%)0.0240 (23.1%)37 (21.4%)0.04
 Quintile 454 (23.3%)524 (22.6%)0.02289 (27.3%)3024 (28.6%)0.0391 (27.7%)873 (26.6%)0.03173 (24.9%)1763 (25.3%)0.0144 (25.4%)46 (26.6%)0.03
 Quintile 5 (least disadvantaged)45 (19.4%)421 (18.1%)0.03169 (16.0%)1649 (15.6%)0.0138 (11.6%)409 (12.5%)0.0387 (12.5%)912 (13.1%)0.0233 (19.1%)23 (13.3%)0.16
Remoteness of residence
 Major cities135 (58.2%)1374 (59.2%)0.02592 (56.0%)5927 (56.1%)0.00170 (51.8%)1677 (51.1%)0.01440 (63.2%)4451 (64.0%)0.0296 (55.5%)93 (53.8%)0.03
 Inner regional63 (27.2%)598 (25.8%)0.03339 (32.1%)3474 (32.9%)0.02118 (36.0%)1257 (38.3%)0.05200 (28.7%)1999 (28.7%)0.0057 (32.9%)62 (35.8%)0.06
 Outer regional, remote, very remote34 (14.7%)348 (15.0%)0.01126 (11.9%)1169 (11.1%)0.0340 (12.2%)346 (10.5%)0.0556 (8.0%)510 (7.3%)0.0320 (11.6%)18 (10.4%)0.04
Parity
 Nulliparous65 (28.0%)699 (30.1%)0.05299 (28.3%)3022 (28.6%)0.0173 (22.3%)751 (22.9%)0.02221 (31.8%)2197 (31.6%)0.0046 (26.6%)41 (23.7%)0.07
 Multiparous (1 to 4)152 (65.5%)1466 (63.2%)0.05709 (67.1%)7122 (67.4%)0.01237 (72.3%)2367 (72.2%)0.00455 (65.4%)4587 (65.9%)0.01116 (67.1%)122 (70.5%)0.07
 Grand multiparous (≥ 5)15 (6.5%)155 (6.7%)0.0149 (4.6%)426 (4.0%)0.0318 (5.5%)162 (4.9%)0.0220 (2.9%)176 (2.5%)0.0211 (6.4%)10 (5.8%)0.02
Previous caesarean section33 (14.2%)290 (12.5%)0.05175 (16.6%)1663 (15.7%)0.0269 (21.0%)626 (19.1%)0.05109 (15.7%)1048 (15.1%)0.0228 (16.2%)37 (21.4%)0.13
Hospitalisation in 12 months prior
 Nil187 (80.6%)1901 (81.9%)0.03856 (81.0%)8655 (81.9%)0.02254 (77.4%)2608 (79.5%)0.05560 (80.5%)5754 (82.7%)0.06142 (82.1%)132 (76.3%)0.14
 Once35 (15.1%)327 (14.1%)0.03151 (14.3%)1418 (13.4%)0.0354 (16.5%)502 (15.3%)0.03101 (14.5%)870 (12.5%)0.0623 (13.3%)27 (15.6%)0.07
 Two or more10 (4.3%)92 (4.0%)0.0250 (4.7%)497 (4.7%)0.0020 (6.1%)170 (5.2%)0.0435 (5.0%)336 (4.8%)0.018 (4.6%)14 (8.1%)0.14
Morbidities
 Mental health57 (24.6%)534 (23.0%)0.04229 (21.7%)2162 (20.5%)0.03131 (39.9%)1224 (37.3%)0.05156 (22.4%)1502 (21.6%)0.0239 (22.5%)75 (43.4%)0.45
 Chronic airway45 (19.4%)416 (17.9%)0.04168 (15.9%)1419 (13.4%)0.0757 (17.4%)516 (15.7%)0.04119 (17.1%)1069 (15.4%)0.0522 (12.7%)28 (16.2%)0.10
 Gastro-oesophageal reflux16 (6.9%)149 (6.4%)0.0266 (6.2%)585 (5.5%)0.0313 (4.0%)137 (4.2%)0.0156 (8.0%)486 (7.0%)0.0411 (6.4%)8 (4.6%)0.08
 Use of NSAIDS23 (9.9%)206 (8.9%)0.0461 (5.8%)510 (4.8%)0.0423 (7.0%)197 (6.0%)0.0454 (7.8%)481 (6.9%)0.037 (4.0%)9 (5.2%)0.06
 Use of steroids11 (4.7%)92 (4.0%)0.0430 (2.8%)243 (2.3%)0.0314 (4.3%)104 (3.2%)0.0625 (3.6%)239 (3.4%)0.01< 55 (2.9%)0.04
 Anaemia and coagulation10 (4.3%)108 (4.7%)0.0226 (2.5%)223 (2.1%)0.0213 (4.0%)124 (3.8%)0.0116 (2.3%)141 (2.0%)0.025 (2.9%)9 (5.2%)0.12
 Drug and alcohol disorder7 (3.0%)59 (2.5%)0.0325 (2.4%)230 (2.2%)0.0130 (9.1%)251 (7.7%)0.0519 (2.7%)169 (2.4%)0.025 (2.9%)21 (12.1%)0.36
 Thyroid< 521 (0.9%)0.048 (0.8%)79 (0.7%)0.005 (1.5%)52 (1.6%)0.008 (1.1%)62 (0.9%)0.03< 5< 5 
 Cardiovascular< 55 (0.2%)0.0412 (1.1%)113 (1.1%)0.016 (1.8%)70 (2.1%)0.0210 (1.4%)87 (1.3%)0.02< 55 (2.9%)0.18
 Pre-existing diabetes< 512 (0.5%)0.0113 (1.2%)114 (1.1%)0.015 (1.5%)45 (1.4%)0.01< 555 (0.8%)0.03< 55 (2.9%)0.04
 Pre-existing hypertension< 512 (0.5%)0.0411 (1.0%)96 (0.9%)0.016 (1.8%)45 (1.4%)0.046 (0.9%)57 (0.8%)0.00< 5< 50.15
 Epilepsy< 59 (0.4%)0.018 (0.8%)64 (0.6%)0.028 (2.4%)65 (2.0%)0.035 (0.7%)60 (0.9%)0.02< 55 (2.9%)0.18
 Chronic renal disease< 527 (1.2%)0.035 (0.5%)42 (0.4%)0.01< 543 (1.3%)0.01< 530 (0.4%)0.02< 5< 50.06
  1. *Absolute standardised difference
  2. #Data for 2011 and 2012 were combined due to frequency of women exposed to bupropion in 2012 was < 5
  3. For 2009 and 2010, only Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women were included
  4. §Data for 2009 and 2010 were combined due to frequency of women exposed to NRT in 2009 was < 5
  5. Quintile scores of the Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage, based on residential area of women
  6. < 5 In accordance with ethical approvals, frequencies less than 5 were not reported