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Table 1 Sex- and country-specific characteristics of study participants

From: Lifestyle factors and risk of multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases: a multinational cohort study

MenNCancer*CVD*T2D*Multimorbidity†Age yearsFollow-up‡§Alcohol g/day||Alcohol NC, %BMI kg/m2¶Smokers %¶mrMDS %¶Physically active %
 Italy13,15888748343811949.9 (7.5)10.225 (0.5–66)4.026.3 (3.3)31.655.527.6
 Spain13,7301367923123837550.3 (7.1)13.433 (1.7–89)13.928.4 (3.4)40.466.821.8
 UK10,862632224804246.0 (13.7)11.114 (0.3–51)0.124.6 (3.4)13.841.524.0
 The Netherlands70733644211237342.7 (11.0)11.520 (0.7–59)8.725.4 (3.5)38.63.444.2
 Germany18,612144551079715851.8 (7.5)9.226 (1.5–69)4.026.8 (3.5)24.68.023.1
 Sweden19,32021531728105854850.5 (11.2)12.010 (0.4–32)9.025.5 (3.4)22.72.019.2
 Denmark22,45924351546205859556.4 (4.3)10.629 (2.5–79)1.626.4 (3.5)37.06.036.5
Total105,214928358355792191051.0 (9.6)11.023 (0.8–68)5.626.3 (3.6)29.623.227.1
WomenNCancer*CVD*T2D*Multimorbidity†Age yearsFollow-up‡§Alcohol g/day||Alcohol NC, %BMI
kg/m2
¶Smokers %¶mrMDS %¶Physically active %
 Italy29,712196344973619750.5 (8.0)10.011 (0.2–36)22.125.6 (4.2)26.455.59.4
 Spain22,9971445396115419447.9 (8.2)13.39 (0.2–28)52.227.9 (4.6)19.557.04.3
 UK34,80221192521055743.1 (13.5)11.18 (0.4–30)0.123.5 (3.9)10.352.117.9
 The Netherlands23,1382126111349021251.6 (11.3)11.611 (0.3–35)17.225.1 (4.1)27.17.739.5
 Germany25,78514432225196748.7 (8.9)9.010 (0.4–34)4.525.4 (4.5)18.713.419.2
 Sweden23,849226696189228251.1 (10.8)11.86 (0.2–20)17.124.7 (4.2)24.05.917.9
 Denmark26,2812832809167638556.7 (4.4)10.714 (0.8–42)2.525.4 (4.3)31.214.132.7
Total186,56414,19442025572133449.7 (10.7)11.110 (0.3–34)15.325.3 (4.4)21.931.119.8
  1. Numbers are means (SD), unless otherwise stated
  2. * Frequency of total incident events among first cancer at any site (excl. non-melanoma skin cancer), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D)
  3. † Frequency of participants developing at least two conditions among first cancer at any site, CVD, and T2D
  4. ‡ Median follow-up time in years
  5. § Among participants drinking more than 0.1 g/day of alcohol at baseline, medians (5th–95th percentile)
  6. || NC, non-consumers, i.e. participants drinking less than 0.1 g/day of alcohol at baseline
  7. ¶ Proportion of current smokers, of study participants in the top tertile of the modified relative Mediterranean diet score (mrMDS), and of participants who are physically active