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Table 3 Factors associated with P. vivax transmission in Kulon Progo District, Indonesia, 2018

From: Using health facility-based serological surveillance to predict receptive areas at risk of malaria outbreaks in elimination areas

VariableTotalP. vivax seropositiveBivariateMultivariable
n (%)n% (95% CI)ORa (95% CI)paORb (95% CI)p
Age (years)
 ≤ 15623 (6.8)8012.9 (10.5–15.7)1 1 
 16–302108 (23.1)75035.6 (33.6–37.6)4.6 (3.6–5.9)0.0005.1 (3.9–6.6)0.000
 31–452531 (27.7)111544.1 (42.1–46.0)6.5 (5.0–8.3)0.0006.6 (5.1–8.7)0.000
 > 453880 (42.4)183647.3 (45.8–48.9)7.5 (5.9–9.7)0.0007.7 (5.9–10.0)0.000
Gender
 Female5945 (65.0)230938.8 (37.6–40.1)1 1 
 Male3206 (35.0)147646.0 (44.3–47.8)1.3 (1.2–1.4)0.0001.3 (1.2–1.5)0.000
Status
 Accompanying1960 (21.4)89545.7 (43.5–47.9)1   
 Patients7191 (78.6)288940.2 (39.0–41.3)0.9 (0.8–1.0)0.028  
Occupation
 Non-forest goers2653 (29.0)102338.6 (36.7–40.4)1 1 
 Forest goers2685 (29.4)139351.9 (50.0–53.8)1.6 (1.4–1.8)0.0001.2 (1.0–1.3)0.012
 Unemployed3810 (41.6)136835.9 (34.4–37.4)0.9 (0.8–1.0)0.0111.0 (0.9–1.1)0.446
Survey time
 Quarter 12324 (25.4)90338.9 (36.9–40.9)1 1 
 Quarter 22217 (24.2)102446.2 (44.1–48.3)1.4 (1.2–1.5)0.0001.5 (1.3–1.6)0.000
 Quarter 32328 (25.4)93040.0 (38.0–42.0)1.1 (0.9–1.2)0.3481.0 (0.9–1.2)0.524
 Quarter 42283 (24.9)92840.7 (38.6–42.7)1.1 (1.0–1.2)0.1961.0 (0.9–1.2)0.799
Bed net use
 No6650 (72.7)255638.4 (37.3–39.6)1 1 
 Yes2502 (27.3)122949.1 (47.2–51.1)1.2 (1.1–1.3)0.0001.2 (1.1–1.3)0.001
Fever
 No8640 (94.9)360441.7 (40.7–42.8)1   
 Yes465 (5.1)16435.3 (31.1–39.7)0.6 (0.5–0.8)0.000  
Recent travel
 No7681 (84.1)317141.3 (39.3–44.4)1   
 Yes1457 (15.9)60941.8 (40.2–42.4)0.9 (0.8–1.1)0.243  
  1. aBivariate OR adjusted by correlation at a health facility level
  2. bMultivariable OR adjusted by other covariates with bivariate p value < 0.05, and correlation at a health facility level
  3. Quarter 1: May–July 2017, Quarter 2: August–October 2017, Quarter 3: November 2017–January 2018, Quarter 4: February–April 2018