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Table 3 Factors associated with P. vivax transmission in Kulon Progo District, Indonesia, 2018

From: Using health facility-based serological surveillance to predict receptive areas at risk of malaria outbreaks in elimination areas

Variable Total P. vivax seropositive Bivariate Multivariable
n (%) n % (95% CI) ORa (95% CI) p aORb (95% CI) p
Age (years)
 ≤ 15 623 (6.8) 80 12.9 (10.5–15.7) 1   1  
 16–30 2108 (23.1) 750 35.6 (33.6–37.6) 4.6 (3.6–5.9) 0.000 5.1 (3.9–6.6) 0.000
 31–45 2531 (27.7) 1115 44.1 (42.1–46.0) 6.5 (5.0–8.3) 0.000 6.6 (5.1–8.7) 0.000
 > 45 3880 (42.4) 1836 47.3 (45.8–48.9) 7.5 (5.9–9.7) 0.000 7.7 (5.9–10.0) 0.000
Gender
 Female 5945 (65.0) 2309 38.8 (37.6–40.1) 1   1  
 Male 3206 (35.0) 1476 46.0 (44.3–47.8) 1.3 (1.2–1.4) 0.000 1.3 (1.2–1.5) 0.000
Status
 Accompanying 1960 (21.4) 895 45.7 (43.5–47.9) 1    
 Patients 7191 (78.6) 2889 40.2 (39.0–41.3) 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.028   
Occupation
 Non-forest goers 2653 (29.0) 1023 38.6 (36.7–40.4) 1   1  
 Forest goers 2685 (29.4) 1393 51.9 (50.0–53.8) 1.6 (1.4–1.8) 0.000 1.2 (1.0–1.3) 0.012
 Unemployed 3810 (41.6) 1368 35.9 (34.4–37.4) 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.011 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.446
Survey time
 Quarter 1 2324 (25.4) 903 38.9 (36.9–40.9) 1   1  
 Quarter 2 2217 (24.2) 1024 46.2 (44.1–48.3) 1.4 (1.2–1.5) 0.000 1.5 (1.3–1.6) 0.000
 Quarter 3 2328 (25.4) 930 40.0 (38.0–42.0) 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.348 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.524
 Quarter 4 2283 (24.9) 928 40.7 (38.6–42.7) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.196 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.799
Bed net use
 No 6650 (72.7) 2556 38.4 (37.3–39.6) 1   1  
 Yes 2502 (27.3) 1229 49.1 (47.2–51.1) 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.000 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.001
Fever
 No 8640 (94.9) 3604 41.7 (40.7–42.8) 1    
 Yes 465 (5.1) 164 35.3 (31.1–39.7) 0.6 (0.5–0.8) 0.000   
Recent travel
 No 7681 (84.1) 3171 41.3 (39.3–44.4) 1    
 Yes 1457 (15.9) 609 41.8 (40.2–42.4) 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.243   
  1. aBivariate OR adjusted by correlation at a health facility level
  2. bMultivariable OR adjusted by other covariates with bivariate p value < 0.05, and correlation at a health facility level
  3. Quarter 1: May–July 2017, Quarter 2: August–October 2017, Quarter 3: November 2017–January 2018, Quarter 4: February–April 2018