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Table 2 Risk ratios for area characteristics at birth and their associations with overweight or obesity at ages 4–5 and 10–11 in Southampton, UK

From: Are environmental area characteristics at birth associated with overweight and obesity in school-aged children? Findings from the SLOPE (Studying Lifecourse Obesity PrEdictors) population-based cohort in the south of England

Area factorScaleModelAge 4–5Age 10–11
All [n = 14,084]Movers [n = 2772]All [n = 5637]Movers [n = 2965]
RR95% CIRR95% CIRR95% CIRR95% CI
Greenspace (%)LSOA*Unadjusted1.0000.998–1.0021.0010.998–1.0040.9970.996–0.9990.9970.994–1.000
Adjusted0.9990.997–1.0011.0000.997–1.0030.9970.995–0.9990.9940.990–0.999
MSOA*Unadjusted0.9990.997–1.0011.0010.997–1.0050.9960.994–0.9980.9950.991–0.999
Adjusted1.0000.998–1.0021.0000.997–1.0040.9970.995–0.9990.9950.989–1.000
WalkabilityLSOA*Unadjusted1.0080.995–1.0211.0140.991–1.0381.0161.001–1.0311.0130.991–1.035
Adjusted1.0060.994–1.0171.0190.998–1.0421.0090.995–1.0221.0190.984–1.056
MSOA*Unadjusted1.0080.998–1.0191.0060.982–1.0311.0221.007–1.0371.0190.995–1.045
Adjusted1.0040.992–1.0151.0110.987–1.0361.0120.996–1.0281.0150.981–1.050
Supermarket density [a]LSOA*Unadjusted1.0100.964–1.0571.0070.926–1.0950.9380.886–0.9930.9890.871–1.122
Adjusted1.0150.976–1.0561.0100.933–1.0940.9590.914–1.0051.0110.915–1.117
MSOA*Unadjusted1.0220.957–1.0911.0630.950–1.1880.9600.894–1.0300.9810.804–1.198
Adjusted1.0180.972–1.0661.0560.950–1.1730.9720.916–1.0321.0380.900–1.197
Relative density of unhealthy food outlets [b]LSOA*Unadjusted1.0020.994–1.0091.0010.989–1.0121.0191.006–1.0311.0291.003–1.056
Adjusted1.0000.993–1.0071.0020.992–1.0131.0090.998–1.0201.0200.994–1.046
MSOA*Unadjusted0.9980.984–1.0110.9980.981–1.0161.0331.016–1.0511.0461.005–1.088
Adjusted0.9970.987–1.0081.0010.985–1.0161.0211.005–1.0371.0190.982–1.057
Spaces for social interactionLSOA*Unadjusted1.0040.998–1.0111.0050.994–1.0161.0091.001–1.0161.0060.995–1.017
Adjusted1.0020.996–1.0081.0060.997–1.0161.0000.993–1.0081.0070.989–1.026
MSOA*Unadjusted1.0091.001–1.0181.0070.990–1.0241.0151.007–1.0241.0171.002–1.032
Adjusted1.0060.999–1.0131.0110.997–1.0251.0040.993–1.0161.0080.984–1.034
PM2.5LSOA*Unadjusted0.9820.960–1.0050.9720.931–1.0151.0080.977–1.0390.9990.956–1.044
Adjusted0.9880.967–1.0100.9840.944–1.0271.0070.978–1.0381.0440.973–1.120
MSOA*Unadjusted0.9800.960–1.0000.9630.925–1.0021.0080.976–1.0410.9960.952–1.042
Adjusted0.9840.964–1.0050.9780.939–1.0181.0080.980–1.0371.0420.965–1.125
PM10LSOA*Unadjusted0.9890.975–1.0040.9770.951–1.0031.0210.997–1.0451.0230.990–1.056
Adjusted0.9940.980–1.0080.9840.959–1.0091.0170.994–1.0411.0280.978–1.080
MSOA*Unadjusted0.9880.974–1.0020.9710.947–0.9951.0211.000–1.0441.0210.989–1.055
Adjusted0.9920.979–1.0050.9780.955–1.0021.0191.001–1.0361.0280.975–1.085
NOxLSOA*Unadjusted1.0000.997–1.0030.9980.993–1.0031.0040.997–1.0101.0060.998–1.014
Adjusted1.0000.997–1.0020.9980.993–1.0031.0010.995–1.0070.9940.977–1.010
MSOA*Unadjusted1.0000.997–1.0020.9970.992–1.0011.0030.995–1.0121.0030.990–1.016
Adjusted0.9990.997–1.0010.9970.993–1.0021.0020.995–1.0090.9870.970–1.005
  1. LSOA areas with average populations of 1500 and an area of 4 km2, MSOA areas with average populations of 7000 and an area of 21 km2. All models adjust for clustering of observations within areas. Adjusted models control for maternal BMI and smoking in early pregnancy, educational attainment, ethnicity and parity, but not other area characteristics. [a] All results adjusted for the relative density of unhealthy food outlets. [b] All results adjusted for supermarket density. Relative risk ratios with p < 0.05 are in bold