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Fig. 7 | BMC Medicine

Fig. 7

From: Identifying potential causal effects of age at menarche: a Mendelian randomization phenome-wide association study

Fig. 7

Estimates of the potential causal effect of age at menarche on adult raw lung function measurements. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; FEV1, forced expiratory volume at 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; UKBB, UK Biobank. The results display the change in milliliters in the spirometry measurements (FEV1 and FVC), or change in the proportion airway obstruction (FEV1/FVC), per year decrease in age at menarche. The estimates are adjusted for age, height, smoking status, and genomic principal components. The analysis of the CHARGE consortium included 60,552 individuals of European ethnicity. For the CHARGE consortium, the main analysis included 350 autosomal SNPs in the genetic risk score for age at menarche, while the sensitivity analysis excluding all SNPs related to childhood and/or adult BMI included 213 autosomal SNPs

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