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Table 1 Characteristics of participants and included studies ordered by study design and year of publication

From: Factors associated with the prescribing of high-dose opioids in primary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID
Country [Ref]
Data sourcePopulationDuration to determine the opioid doseDose groups
High doseLow dose
Cross-sectional studiesmg/dayNmg/dayN
Morasco, 2019
USA [33]
Electronic medical records and self-reported measures51 patients aged 18–70 years receiving opioids for musculoskeletal pain90-day average≥ 100175–9934
Chang, 2018a
USA [30]
QuintilesIMS’ LifeLink longitudinal prescription database linked to patient and prescriber files4,046,275 patients aged ≥ 18 years prescribed an opioid90-day average> 100150,814≤ 1003,895,461
Cohort studiesmg/dayNmg/dayN
Chang, 2018b
USA [4]
QuintilesIMS patient-level administrative claims191,405 patients aged 18–64 years with at least one prescription opioid claim90-day average> 1002778≤ 100188,627
Campbell, 2015
Australia [34]
Telephone interviews, self-reported questionnaire, and medication diary1085 patients aged ≥ 18 years with CNCP prescribed an opioid for > 6 weeks1-week average≥ 914251–90660
Chapman, 2013
UK [31]
CPRD4035 patients with CNCP, ≥ 2 office visits and ≥ 1 prescription of fentanyl, hydromorphone, morphine, and/or oxycodoneDose measured at each visit> 200262≤ 2003773
Kobus, 2012
USA [32]
Kaiser Permanente Northwest virtual data warehouse5268 patients aged ≥ 18 years with low-back pain and > 90 consecutive days of opioid useLast dispensed dose≥ 1004531–994815
  1. CNCP chronic non-cancer pain, CPRD Clinical Practice Research Datalink, UK United Kingdom, USA United States of America