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Table 2 Secondary outcomes—adjusted treatment effects (repeated measures analyses using data from all available timepoints, adjusted for age, sex and CKD category)

From: Clinical and cost-effectiveness of oral sodium bicarbonate therapy for older patients with chronic kidney disease and low-grade acidosis (BiCARB): a pragmatic randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

 Treatment effect (bicarbonate–placebo) (95% CI)p
Physical function and anthropometry
 Six-min walk distance (m)− 33 (− 62 to − 4)0.02
 Grip strength (kg)− 1.5 (− 2.8 to − 0.2)0.03
 Weight (kg)0.2 (− 2.9 to 3.4)0.89
 Mid-arm muscle circumference (cm)0.0 (− 0.6 to 0.6)0.99
 Triceps skinfold thickness (mm)− 1 (− 2 to 1)0.34
 Mid-thigh circumference (cm)0.1 (− 0.8 to 1.1)0.80
Quality of life
 EuroQoL EQ-5D-3L− 0.04 (− 0.08 to 0.00)0.06
 EuroQoL EQ-5D visual analogue scale− 3 (− 7 to 1)0.09
 KDQOL symptoms− 1 (− 3 to 2)0.67
 KDQOL burden of disease− 3 (− 8 to 2)0.20
 KDQOL effect of disease− 2 (− 5 to 1)0.25
 KDQOL SF-36 physical component summary− 1 (− 4 to 1)0.23
 KDQOL SF-36 mental component summary− 2 (− 4 to 0)0.03
Renal biochemistry
 Serum bicarbonate (mmol/L)1.1 (0.6 to 1.6)< 0.001
 Serum potassium (mmol/L)0.0 (− 0.1 to 0.1)0.80
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)*0.6 (− 0.8 to 2.0)0.39
 Serum creatinine (umol/L)*− 8 (− 28 to 13)0.46
 Serum cystatin C (mg/L)*− 0.01 (− 0.17 to 0.14)0.89
 Log [urinary albumin/creatinine ratio]0.32 (− 0.05 to 0.70)0.09
Cardiometabolic risk
 Log [NT-pro-BNP (pg/mL)]0.13 (− 0.18 to 0.44)0.42
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)0.1 (− 0.2 to 0.3)0.58
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)0 (− 4 to 3)0.93
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)1 (− 1 to 3)0.16
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)1 (− 1 to 4)0.38
Bone and mineral metabolism
 Log [TRACP-5b (IU/L)]− 0.18 (− 0.43 to 0.08)0.17
 Log [Bs-ALP (μg/L)]0.01 (− 0.11 to 0.13)0.83
 Log [PTH (pmol/L)]0.03 (− 0.14 to 0.19)0.75
 Log [25OHD (nmol/L)]− 0.08 (− 0.23 to 0.06)0.24
 1,25OHD (pmol/L) (SD)3 (− 3 to 9)0.30
 Serum calcium (mmol/L)0.02 (0.00 to 0.04)0.11
 Serum phosphate (mmol/L)0.02 (− 0.03 to 0.06)0.52
Other
 Haemoglobin (g/L)− 0.1 (− 0.4 to 0.2)0.48
 Albumin (g/L)0 (−1 to 1)0.67
 Log [TSH (mIU/L)]0.07 (− 0.10 to 0.24)0.39
  1. *Repeated measures analyses using data from all available timepoints, adjusted for age and sex only
  2. 1,25OHD 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 25OHD 25-hydroxyvitamin D, NT-pro-BNP N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, Bs-ALP bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c glycosylated haemoglobin, KDQOL kidney disease quality of life, PTH parathyroid hormone, SF-36 Short-form 36 questionnaire, TRACP-5b tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone