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Table 2 The characteristics and clinical variables of patients in the prospective validation cohort

From: Prediction of sepsis mortality using metabolite biomarkers in the blood: a meta-analysis of death-related pathways and prospective validation

Clinical variableValidation sepsisP value
Sepsis survivorsSepsis nonsurvivors
No.13454 
Age (years)61.8 ± 18.567 ± 14.40.07
Gender (male %)64.20%61.10%0.69
SOFA (median and IQR)7 (5–12)8 (6–13)0.22
APACHE II (median and IQR)18 (13–24)22 (18–30)0.001
MAP (mmHg)75.2 ± 14.965.8 ± 15.20.001
PCT (median and IQR)2.13 (0.26–15.9)2.53 (0.74–36.5)0.086
Pathogen
S. aureus [N (%)]13 (9.7%)4 (7.4%)0.62
K. pneumoniae [N (%)]23 (17.2%)4 (7.4%)0.084
E. coli [N (%)]9 (6.7%)4 (7.4%)0.86
Source of infection
 Respiratory [N (%)]46 (34.3%)23 (42.6%)0.29
 Abdominal [N (%)]18 (13.4%)7 (13.0%)0.94
 Urinary tract [N (%)]6 (4.5%)3 (5.6%)0.75
 Blood [N (%)]33 (24.6%)8 (14.8%)0.14
 Others [N (%)]31 (23.1%)13 (24.1%)0.88
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus [N (%)]32 (23.9%)16 (29.6%)0.42
 Cardiovascular disease [N (%)]43 (32.1%)23 (42.6%)0.17
 Malignancy [N (%)]16 (11.9%)11 (20.4%)0.13
 COPD [N (%)]5 (3.7%)2 (3.7%)1
 Chronic kidney disease [N (%)]8 (6.0%)2 (3.7%)0.53
 Chronic liver disease [N (%)]8 (6.0%)1 (1.9%)0.24
 Nervous system disease [N (%)]20 (14.9%)14 (25.9%)0.077
 Immunosuppression [N (%)]14 (10.4%)8 (14.8%)0.4
  1. Data were shown as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or median with interquartile range (IQR) or number with percentages depending on the distribution. P values were calculated by Student’s t test or Mann-Whitney U test or proportional Z test
  2. Abbreviations: SOFA The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, MAP mean arterial pressure, PCT procalcitonin, S. aureus Staphylococcus aureus, K. pneumoniae Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli Escherichia coli, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease