Skip to main content

Table 4 Cox proportional hazards models of the associations between categories of beverage intake and all-cause mortality

From: The associations of sugar-sweetened, artificially sweetened and naturally sweet juices with all-cause mortality in 198,285 UK Biobank participants: a prospective cohort study

Sugar-sweetened beverages
ModelNumberDeaths, no.0/day,n= 133,258,HR (95% CI)1/day,n= 51,842,HR (95% CI)> 1–2/day,n= 9415,HR (95% CI)> 2/day,n= 3770,HR (95% CI)pvalue for trend
Deaths, no.  207483416098 
 0198,28331661 (Ref)1.03 (0.95–1.12)1.10 (0.94–1.30)1.71 (1.40–2.09)< 0.001
 1197,59031501 (Ref)1.07 (0.98–1.16)1.28 (1.09–1.51)2.13 (1.74–2.62)< 0.001
 2161,41523111 (Ref)1.06 (0.97–1.17)1.35 (1.12–1.62)1.86 (1.44–2.40)< 0.001
 3161,41523111 (Ref)1.06 (0.97–1.17)1.35 (1.12–1.63)1.87 (1.45–2.42)< 0.001
 4161,41523111 (Ref)1.06 (0.96–1.16)1.33 (1.10–1.60)1.84 (1.42–2.37)< 0.001
Artificially sweetened beverages 
ModelNumberDeaths, no.0/day,n= 157,494,HR (95% CI)1/day,n= 27,079,HR (95% CI)> 1–2/day,n= 8680,HR (95% CI)> 2/day,n= 5032,HR (95% CI)pvalue for trend
Deaths, no.  255037714495 
 0198,28331661 (Ref)0.84 (0.75–0.93)1.06 (0.90–1.26)1.24 (1.01–1.52)0.743
 1197,59031501 (Ref)0.98 (0.88–1.09)1.35 (1.14–1.60)1.73 (1.41–2.12)< 0.001
 2161,41523111 (Ref)0.92 (0.81–1.05)1.13 (0.91–1.39)1.44 (1.12–1.84)0.063
 3161,41523111 (Ref)0.92 (0.81–1.05)1.13 (0.91–1.39)1.44 (1.12–1.84)0.058
 4161,41523111 (Ref)0.92 (0.81–1.05)1.13 (0.91–1.39)1.44 (1.12–1.84)0.062
Fruit or vegetable juice 
ModelNumberDeaths, no.0/day,n= 94,568,HR (95% CI)1/day,n= 89,206,HR (95% CI)> 1–2/day,n= 12,492,HR (95% CI)> 2/day,n= 2019,HR (95% CI)pvalue for trend
Deaths, no.  1598136218125 
 0198,28331661 (Ref)0.89 (0.83–0.95)0.84 (0.72–0.98)0.73 (0.49–1.08)> 0.001
 1197,59031501 (Ref)0.82 (0.77–0.89)0.80 (0.67–0.94)0.76 (0.49–1.08)> 0.001
 2161,41523111 (Ref)0.91 (0.83–0.99)0.89 (0.74–1.06)0.64 (0.39–1.05)0.008
 3161,41523111 (Ref)0.89 (0.82–0.97)0.84 (0.70–1.01)0.58 (0.35–0.96)0.001
 4161,41523111 (Ref)0.89 (0.81–0.97)0.83 (0.69–1.00)0.57 (0.34–0.93)0.001
  1. Model 0: unadjusted
  2. Model 1: adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity
  3. Model 2: model 1 also adjusted for income, highest qualification, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, total energy intake, body mass index, smoking status and alcohol intake
  4. Model 3: model 2 also adjusted for total sugar intake and total fat intake (total sugar intake was not included in the analysis of sugar-sweetened beverages)
  5. Model 4: model 3 also adjusted for fresh fruit intake, vegetable intake, total fibre intake, red meat intake and processed meat intake
  6. N number, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval