Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of checklists (oldest to most recently published)

From: Checklists to detect potential predatory biomedical journals: a systematic review

Study Checklist name Number of items Items weighted Y/N Time to complete min Methods used to develop checklist
(NR = Not reported)
Qualitative guidance Y/N Quantitative guidance Y/N
Checklists from electronic journal databases n = 53
[REFERENCE CHECKLIST] Shamseer, 2017 [13] Salient characteristics of potential predatory journals 13 N 0–5 Cross-sectional analysis 93 predatory journals, 99 OA, 100 subscription based journals assessed No No
Beall, 2012 [10] Criteria for Determining Predatory Open-Access Publishers 5 No 10+ min Criteria based on AOSPAa Code of Conduct, two COPEb publications No No
Beall, 2013 [15] Some warning signs of questionable publishers 7 No 0–5 min Observational research on own emails received No No
Crawford, 2014 [82] No title 11 No 6–10 min Assessed all criteria in Beall’s criteria Yes No
Knoll, 2014 [83] Avoiding Predatory OA Journals 17 No 0–5 min Works cited No No
Lukic, 2014 [84] No title 13 No 0–5 min Multiple references No No
Beall, 2015 [85] Criteria for Determining Predatory Open-Access Publishers 5 No 10+ min Criteria based on COPE documents: Code of Conduct and Principles of Transparency and Best Practices in Scholarly Publication No No
Bhad, 2015 [86] How should one suspect a journal could be a predatory journal? 9 No 0–5 min NR No No
Bradley-Springer, 2015 [87] No title 6 No 0–5 min Multiple references No No
Hemmat Esfe, 2015 [88] Features of the Fake Journals 9 No 0–5 min NR No No
INANE Predatory Publishing Practices Collaborative, 2015 [89] Guidelines for evaluating the integrity of a journal / Red flags 7 No 0–5 min Limited literature review No No
Pamukcu Gunaydin, 2015 [90] No title 10 No 0–5 min Authors’ top 10 based on other references No No
Proehl, 2015 [91] Guidelines for evaluating the integrity of a journal - Red flags 7 No 0–5 min References to other checklists: COPE etc. No No
Stone, 2015 [92] Guidelines for evaluating the integrity of a journal 6 No 0–5 min Other credible resources: COPE, INANEc, other No No
Yucha, 2015 [93] Guidelines for Evaluating the Integrity of a Journal - Red flags 10 No 0–5 min Multiple references to other checklists No No
Cariappa, 2016 [94] Telltale signs - Something is wrong! 7 No 0–5 Some literature cited No No
Carroll, 2016 [95] Common Practices of Predatory Open Access Publications 4 No 0–5 min Limited literature review No No
Dadkhah, 2016 [96] Criteria to rank predatory journals 14 Yes 10+ min Observational study of 150 journals 80 predatory, 70 non Yes Yes
Fraser, 2016 [97] Red Flags for Recognizing Predatory Journals 6 No 0–5 min Two citations No No
Glick, 2016 [98] What you can expect from a predatory publisher 7 No 0–5 min Multiple citations No No
Glick, 2016a [99] Clues suggesting a “predatory” journal 11 No 0–5 min Multiple references No No
Hansoti, 2016 [100] Overall Approach to Choosing the Journal 11 No 0–5 min Extensive literature review Yes No
Morley, 2016 [101] 10 steps to spot a predatory publisher 10 No 0–5 min A few citations Yes No
Nolan, 2016 [102] None section title exists but not title 5 No 0–5 min None noted No No
Ward, 2016 [103] No title 8 No 6–10 min None listed No No
Abadi, 2017 [16] No title 26 No 6–10 min NR No No
Balehegn, 2017 [30] No title 5 No 0–5 min References No No
Berger, 2017 [17] Detailed Characteristics of Predatory Journals 15 No 6–10 min NR No No
Das, 2017 [18] How to identify predators? 15 No 0–5 min Two citations No No
Erfanmanesh 2017 [19] No title 18 No 6–10 min Multiple references No No
Eriksson, 2017 [20] Characteristics of a predatory journal 25 No 10+ Limited literature review No No
Janodia, 2017 [21] No title 9 No 6–10 min NR Yes No
Khan, 2017 [22] Attributes, characteristics and practices of potential predatory journals 9 No 0–5 min Citations No No
Klyce, 2017 [23] Common characteristics of predatory journals 13 No 0–5 min Limited literature review No No
Manca, 2017 [24] No title 6 No 0–5 min Limited literature review No No
Miller, 2017 [25] Signs of a Predatory Publisher 8 No 0–5 min NR No No
Misra, 2017 [26] Red flags based on which one may suspect the legitimacy of a journal 17 No 0–5 min Literature review and authors’ experiences No No
Mouton, 2017 [27] Comparing the characteristics of good practice in scholarly publishing with those of predatory publishing 7 No 0–5 min In-depth assessment of journals identified by Beall’s list where South African authors published No No
Oren, 2017 [28] Obvious signs of predatory journals 7 No 0–5 min NR No No
Shamseer, 2017 [13] Salient characteristics of potential predatory journals 13 No 0–5 min Observational study 93 predatory journals, 99 OAd, 100 subscription-based journals assessed No No
Stratton, 2017 [29] Characteristics of Health and Medical Journal Publishing Formats - Open Access Predatory 4 No 0–5 min Cited references No No
Ajuwon, 2018 [33] Characteristics of Predatory Publishers and Journals 12 No 0–5 min Citations from other sources No No
Bowman, 2018 [34] Identifying Predatory Journals and Publishers 29 No 6–10 min NR No No
Gerberi, 2018 [35] Quick List of Predatory Publisher Warning Signs 7 No 0–5 min Limited literature review No No
Kokol, 2018 [37] No title 4 No 0–5 Analysis of papers 2013–2017 predatory Beall’s vs non No No
Lewinski, 2018 [38] Eight tips to identify a predatory journal or publisher 8 No 0–5 NR Yes No
McCann, 2018 [31] Guidelines for authors to avoid predatory publishers 25 No 0–5 min Brief literature review Yes No
Memon, 2018 [39] No title 14 No 6–10 min Collecting emails and web pages of each journal /publisher. Used Beall’s list, PubMed, DOAJe, Thomson and Reuters now Clarivate Analytics No No
Nnaji, 2018 [40] No title 11 No 6–10 min Two references No No
O’Donnell, 2018 [32] Identifying a predator 17 No 6–10 min Other evidence-based checklist No No
Pamukcu Gunaydin, 2018 [36] How to avoid sending your work to a predatory journal 5 No 0–5 Limited literature review No No
Power, 2018 [41] No title 11 No 6–10 min References COPE, INANE No No
Richtig, 2018 [42] Criteria identified or suggested in the literature that can potentially be used to identify predatory journals 13 No 6–10 Literature review No No
Wikipedia, 2019 [104] No title 10 No 0–5 min Multiple citations No No
Checklists from university library websites n = 30
[REFERENCE CHECKLIST] Shamseer, 2017 [13] Salient characteristics of potential predatory journals 13 N 0–5 Cross sectional analysis 93 predatory journals, 99 OA, 100 subscription-based journals assessed No No
Carlson, 2014 [43] None 11 No 0–5 min Based on personal experiences looking into questionable OA journals No No
Clark, 2015 [1] None 5 No 0–5 min NR No No
University of Edinburgh, 2015 [44] Some warning signs to look out for 4 No 0–5 min NR No No
Africa Check, 2017 [45] None 7 No 0–5 min NR No No
Cabell’s – Clarivate, 2017 [46] None 64 No 10+ min Analysis by specialists see: https://www2.cabells.com/about-blacklist No No
Duke University Medical Center, 2017 [47] Be iNFORMEd Checklist 6 No 0–5 min NR Yes No
University of Calgary, 2017 [48] No title 6 No 0–5 min NR No No
Coopérer en information scientifique et technique, 2018 [49] No title 35 No 10+ min NR No No
Eaton, University of Calgary 2018 [50] No title 12 No 0–5 min Other sources cited Yes No
Lapinksi, Harvard, 2018 [51] No title 3 No 0–5 min NR Yes No
Sorbonne Université, 2018 [52] Comment repérer un éditeur prédateur 12 No 0–5 min NR No No
University of Alberta, 2018 [54] No title 19 No 6–10 min NR No No
University of British Columbia, 2018 [53] No title 16 No 6–10 min NR No No
University of Toronto Libraries, 2018 [55] Identifying Deceptive Publishers: A Checklist 22 Yes 6–10 min NR Yes Yes
Dalhousie University, 2019 [56] How to recognize predatory journals 6 No 0–5 min NR No No
McGill University, 2019 [57] No title 4 No 0–5 min NR No No
McMaster University, 2019 [58] No title 6 No 0–5 min NR No No
Prater, American Journal Experts, 2019 [59] No title 8 No 0–5 min NR Yes No
Ryerson University Library, 2019 [60] No title 5 No 0–5 min NR No No
Université Laval, 2019 [61] No title 8 No 0–5 min NR No No
University of Cambridge, 2019 [62] No title 9 No 6–10 min NR No No
University of Pretoria, 2019 [63] No title 19 No 0–5 min NR No No
University of Queensland Library, 2019 [65] No title 6 No 0–5 min NR No No
University of Queensland Library, 2019a [64] Red Flags for Open Access Journals 9 No 0–5 min NR Yes No
University of Witwatersrand, 2019 [66] Predatory Publisher Checklist 26 No 10+ min NR No No
Canadian Association of Research Libraries, ND [67] How to assess a journal A.K.A. How not to publish in an undesirable journal 12 No 0–5 min NR Yes No
Columbia University Libraries, ND [68] No title 5 No 0–5 min NR Yes No
Technion Library, ND [69] No title 10 No 0–5 min NR No No
UC Berkley, ND [70] No title 3 No 0–5 min Cited 1 paper No No
University of Ottawa Scholarly Communication, ND [71] No title 12 No 0–5 min NR No No
Checklists from YouTube n = 10
[REFERENCE CHECKLIST] Shamseer, 2017 [13] Salient characteristics of potential predatory journals 13 N 0–5 Cross sectional analysis 93 predatory journals, 99 OA, 100 subscription-based journals assessed No No
Robbins, Western Sydney University, 2015 [72] Red Flags 9 No 6–10 min NR No No
Attia, 2017 [73] Spot Predatory Publishers 4 No 0–5 min NR No No
Kysh, USC Keck School of Medicine, 2017 [74] Characteristics of Predatory Publishers 9 No 0–5 min NR No No
McKenna, Rhodes University, 2017 [75] Predatory Publications: Shark Spotting 7 No 0–5 min NR No No
Nicholson, University of Witwatersrand, 2017 [76] Cautionary Checklist 36 No 10+ min NR No No
Raszewski, 2017 [77] What to watch out for 4 No 0–5 min NR No No
Seal-Roberts, Springer Healthcare, 2017 [78] So how do we recognize a predatory publisher? 10 No 0–5 min NR No No
Menon, SCMS Group of Educational Institutions, India and Berryman, Cabell’s, 2018 [79] Characteristics of Predatory Journals 7 No 0–5 min NR No No
Office of Scholarly Communication, Cambridge University, 2018 [80] None 12 No 0–5 min NR No No
Weigand, UNC Libraries, 2018 [81] No title 5 No 0–5 min NR No No
  1. aOASPA Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association
  2. bCOPE Committee on Publication Ethics
  3. cINANE International Academy of Nursing Editors
  4. dOA Open Access
  5. eDOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals