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Table 1 Summary of baseline characters (candidate predictors) and outcome for the SLOPE sample using the multiple imputed data

From: Predicting the risk of childhood overweight and obesity at 4–5 years using population-level pregnancy and early-life healthcare data

Stage recordedVariableMean ± SD
 N29,060
Booking appointmentMaternal age at booking, years28.4 ± 5.9
Booking appointmentGestation at booking, days80 ± 19
Booking appointmentMaternal BMI at booking, kg/m225.5 ± 5.5
BirthBirthweight, kg3.4 ± 0.6
BirthGestation at birth, days279 ± 13
Early life (~ 1 year)Weight at 1 year, kg9.4 ± 1.2
Early life (~ 1 year)Weight at 2 years, kg13.0 ± 1.6
  %, 95% CI
Booking appointmentMaternal smoking status at booking 
- Never smoked49.0 (48.4 to 49.5)
- Ex-smoker33.6 (33.1 to 34.2)
- Current smoker17.4 (17.0 to 17.9)
Booking appointmentMaternal highest educational attainment 
- University degree or above25.5 (25.0 to 26.0)
- College (A levels)40.9 (40.4 to 41.5)
- Secondary school or below33.6 (33.1 to 34.1)
Booking appointmentMaternal employment status at booking 
- Employed68.9 (68.4 to 69.5)
- Unemployed28.8 (28.3 to 29.4)
- Student or in training2.2 (2.1 to 2.4)
Booking appointmentMaternal ethnicity 
- White90.4 (90.0 to 90.7)
- Mixed1.1 (1.0 to 1.2)
- Asian6.1 (5.8 to 6.3)
- Black/African/Caribbean1.5 (1.3 to 1.6)
- Other1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)
Booking appointmentIntake of folic acid supplements 
- Taking prior to pregnancy31.0 (30.4 to 31.5)
- Started taking once pregnant58.3 (57.7 to 58.8)
- Not taking supplement at booking10.8 (10.4 to 11.1)
Booking appointmentMaternal first language English97.1 (96.9 to 97.3)
Booking appointmentPartnership status at booking91.7 (91.4 to 92.0)
Booking appointmentInfertility treatment 
- No92.5 (92.2 to 92.8)
- Yes4.2 (4.0 to 4.4)
- Investigations but no treatment3.3 (3.1 to 3.5)
Booking appointmentHistory of mental health20.5 (20.1 to 21.0)
Booking appointmentPrevious stillbirth0.8 (0.7 to 0.9)
Booking appointmentParity at booking 
- 045.0 (44.5 to 45.6)
- 135.2 (34.6 to 35.7)
- 213.0 (12.6 to 13.4)
- ≥ 36.8 (6.5 to 7.1)
Booking appointmentPrevious caesarean section 
- 087.9 (87.5 to 88.2)
- 110.1 (9.7 to 10.4)
- 22.0 (1.9 to 2.2)
Booking appointmentMaternal diet 
- No special diet93.3 (93.0 to 93.6)
- Pescatarian2.3 (2.2 to 2.5)
- Vegetarian2.2 (2.1 to 2.4)
- Vegan0.1 (0.1 to 0.1)
- Other2.1 (1.9 to 2.2)
Booking appointmentMaternal disability status1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)
Booking appointmentMaternal substance use0.1 (0.1 to 0.2)
Booking appointmentObstetric history of GDM0.9 (0.7 to 1.0)
Booking appointmentObstetric history of preeclampsia0.2 (0.1 to 0.2)
Booking appointmentFamily history of diabetes14.2 (13.8 to 14.6)
Booking appointmentFamily history of hypertensive disorder31.6 (31.0 to 32.1)
Booking appointmentFamily history of mental health conditions16.1 (15.7 to 16.6)
BirthDelivery method 
- Vaginal77.8 (77.3 to 78.2)
- Caesarean section22.2 (21.8 to 22.7)
BirthGestational diabetes in current pregnancy2.0 (1.9 to 2.2)
BirthPreeclampsia in current pregnancy0.5 (0.4 to 0.6)
BirthChild sex 
- Male51.2 (50.6 to 51.8)
- Female48.8 (48.2 to 49.4)
Early lifeDuration of breastfeeding 
- No breastfeeding48.2 (47.4 to 49.0)
- Minimum 10 days19.6 (19.0 to 20.2)
- Minimum 6 weeks21.8 (21.1 to 22.5)
- Minimum 8 weeks9.5 (9.1 to 10.0)
- Minimum 4 months0.3 (0.2 to 0.4)
- 9 months0.6 (0.4 to 0.7)
4–5 yearsChildhood overweight or obesity (≥ 91st centile)14.8 (14.4 to 15.2)