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Table 1 Data source and description for the explanatory variables

From: Spatial heterogeneity and socioeconomic determinants of opioid prescribing in England between 2015 and 2018

VariableTypeSourceDescription
Demography   
16–59 years%CensusPercentage of people between 16 and 59 years
60+ years%CensusPercentage of people with more than 60 years
Whites%CensusPercentage of people of white ethnicity
Asians%CensusPercentage of people of Asian ethnicity
Blacks%CensusPercentage of people of black ethnicity
Females%CensusPercentage of females
Economy   
IncomeIMDGovernmentScore of deprivation relating to low income
EmploymentIMDGovernmentScore of deprivation relating to exclusion from work (unemployment, sickness, disability)
HousingIMDGovernmentScore of deprivation relating to homelessness, house affordability, and overcrowding
Indoor env.IMDGovernmentScore of deprivation relating to Decent Homes Standard
Culture   
Christians%CensusPercentage of Christian people
Not Christians%CensusPercentage of people with religions other than Christianism
Atheists%CensusPercentage of people without religion
Young educationIMDGovernmentScore of deprivation relating to education of children and young people
Adult educationIMDGovernmentScore of deprivation relating to education of adults
No qualifications%CensusPercentage of people with no education degree
Level 1%CensusPercentage of people with level 1 education degree (as highest certification)
Level 2%CensusPercentage of people with level 2 education degree (as highest certification)
Apprenticeship%CensusPercentage of people with an apprenticeship (as highest certification)
Level 3%CensusPercentage of people with level 3 education degree (as highest certification)
Level 4+%CensusPercentage of people with level 4 or higher education degree (as highest certification)
Environment   
CrimeIMDGovernmentScore of deprivation relating to violence, burglary, thefts, and criminal damages
Service accessibilityIMDGovernmentScore of deprivation relating to physical proximity of local services
Outdoor env.IMDGovernmentScore of deprivation relating to air quality and traffic accidents
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