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Fig. 2 | BMC Medicine

Fig. 2

From: The impact of maternal and early life malnutrition on health: a diet-microbe perspective

Fig. 2

Diet is a major contributor to the pathology of malnutrition and undernutrition. Nutrient quality and quantity can alter host immunity directly and through alteration of gut microbial communities. Dysbiosis adds to the cycle of malnutrition through dietary fermentation by-products, pathobiont overgrowth, and epithelial oxygenation. These conditions alter intestinal permeability, leading to increased pathogen susceptibility and endotoxemia that hampers host immunity and increases disease susceptibility. Created with BioRender.com

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